What is the biblical basis for all Christians being able to counsel?
NT terms for counseling are addressed to all Christians
What are the NT terms for counseling?
parakaleo didasko noutheteo elencho epitimao
What does parakaleo mean?
to come alongside encourage comfort exhort
Name a verse that uses parakaleo?
1 Thes. 5:11
What does didasko mean?
What does noutheteo?
to stick in someone's mind/spear; admonish counsel
Name a verse that uses noutheteo
What does elencho mean?
reprove expose convict refute to point out error
What does epitimao mean?
rebuke warn tell sternly
What is the main goal of NT counseling?
Counseling g is an essential part _______________.
Name two verses stating the main goal of counseling.
Gal. 6:1 1 Tim. 1:5
What is the context for NT counseling?
Name 4 counseling models.
Dynamic Moral Relational Love Therapy
What is the background of the Dynamic model?
Freud psychotherapy prolonged time commitment w/therapist
What are the presuppositions of the Dynamic model?
humans are organisms emotional problems = sickness; subconscious causes problems
What does healing look like in the Dynamic model?
need to heal of past trauma by drawing out subconscious sources
what are the Scriptural compatibilities of the dynamic model?
depravity--can't understand why I'm doing what I do (Rom. 7); category for mental illness; sometimes not at fault for damage; past effects present; ppl capable of evaluative thinking
what are the scriptural incompatibilities of the dynamic model?
we are moral agents (Rom. 3:23); we are not essentially one way that can't be changed--not fated
What is the background of the Moral model?
Jay Adams most common in Christian counseling popular w/Reformed
What are the presuppositions of the Moral model?
wrong actions lead to wrong feelings and attitudes
Evaluate the presuppositions of the moral model.
true but don't know why you do what you do; legalistic: what about internal sins that aren't an action?
What does healing look like according to the Moral model?
do the right thing
What are the scriptural compatibilities of the moral model?
self-control is fruit of the spirit; admonishing is loving (but that's all they do); blessed (happy) if you do these things
what are the scriptural incompatibilities of the moral model?
discounts deeper causes (Jer. 17:9); deals w/external bh only
what is the background of the relational model?
what are the presuppositions of the relational model?
designed to love & be loved; human problems are defensive attempts to handle fear; our reactions damage relationships more
what does healing look like in the relational model?
identify false beliefs replace w/ true beliefs act in faith gradual change in habits thinking attitudes and feelings result
what are the scriptural compatibilities of the relational model?
total depravity besetting sin role of ID in sanctification indicative/imperative
what are the scriptural incompatibilities of the relational model?
"over-reliance on ""feel the pain""; don't need to dwell on past in order to experience healing (but past is significant); Crabb has silly exegesis at times; unacquainted w/healthy Body Life"
What are the main points in teaching the relationships chart?
1. understand the primacy of love; 2. God's part vs. our part in learning & practicing it; 3. where love requires deliberate action; 4. Love is rooted in God & his Word; 5. love defines Christian ethics & spiritual life
what are the basic qualities of love?
gracious emotional disciplining sacrificial
What distinction does 1 Pet. 1:22 make?
phileo vs. agape: God gives us affection for others (indicative) & we need to sacrifice for others (imperative)
What is 1 Cor. 16:14 about?
love requires deliberate action
name a verse about the primacy of love
1 Tim. 1:5
what is 1 John 4:16 about?
love is rooted in God & His Word our source for understanding love
name a verse that says love defines Christian ethics
name 2 verses that say love defines spiritual life
1 Jn. 4:12 20
Describe the common experience of a casual relationship
occasional contact fun times
describe the common experience of a close relationship
planned time have to see quality time shared goals
describe the common experience of an intimate relationship
extensive time commitment availability shared worlds
describe the personal inner workings of a casual relationship
a general knowledge see potential you open up
describe the personal inner workings of a close relationship
promote potential pointed questions share your life loyalty
describe the personal inner workings of an intimate relationship
completely open committed to growth affirmation & confrontation two-way relationship accountability
describe the emotions of a casual relationship
real warmth interest
describe the emotions of a close relationship
prioritize thankfulness dependency
describe the emotions of an intimate relationship
affection often verbal spontaneous expressions
how can the relationships chart be applied?
1. identify problem area; 2. appropriate God's power in these areas; 3. deepen a relationship by bringing it to the next level
we cannot deduce the existence of a being from the idea of that being; involves untrue premises & faulty logic
summarize the teleological argument
presence of order in the universe reques the existence of an orderer
what is the classic teleological illustration
critique the teleological argument
"""design"" needs to be defined; involves special pleading (God made the world but not evil); anthropic principle; what makes watch stand out?; doesn't lead to biblical monotheism"
what is the best way to use the design argument?
as inductive argument which points to the presence of a designer as one of the more likely explanations for apparent design
natural selection explains which forms of life ________ but not which forms ________
what is the cosmological arguemnt?
considers why anything exists; Uncaused Cause
what are some scientific arguments?
universe had a beginning otherwise it would be total chaos by now; universe is expanding not oscillating (big bang)
critique the cosmological argument
special pleading: why doesn't God need a cause?; infinity doesn't need initial cause; shows problems with naturalism but can't prove existence of God
what is evidentialist apologetics?
inductive approach similar to courtroom evidence showing most probable explanation
what is the main argument of evidential apologetics?
historical argument: Bible is historically reliable Bible teaches Jesus claimed to be God; Lord Liar Lunatic
what supporting details are used in evidential apologetics?
fulfilled prophesy empty tomb rise of Christianity Christian martyrs
critique evidential apologetics
"can't provide historicity of gospels 100% lack secular correlation; empty tomb is argument from silence; Lord Liar Lunatic is more helpful to deal with ""good man"" theory; some evidentialists misquote authorities"
what are the strengths of evidentialist approach?
strengthens faith of Christians; fulfilled prophesy is most useful for non-Christians; pre-evangelism: create curiosity & deal with misconception that there is no evidence for Christianity
summarize pressuppositional apologetics?
everyone has certain presuppositions which often contradict their claimed worldview
summarize the presuppositional models
help people discover their presuppositions push them to their logical conclusion & show how Christian worldview is more consistent with their presuppositiosn
communicate guidelines for the presuppositional model?
it is confrontative so only use where resistence is already present or in public speaking; can be hard for people to understand
what is taylor's explanation?
the railroad rock illustration
Describe the pre-modern epistemology.
up to 16th century presupposed omniscient God; universe open superstitious
describe the modern epistemology
"Western 17th century on; absolute truth attainable thru science; universe closed; starts with ""I"" not God; correspondence view of truth"
describe the postmodern epistemology
1970s on; truth is relative based on perspective; starts w/I; emphasizes culture; anti-foundational; not possible to know absolute truth
4 implications of post-modernism
no objective morality; evangelism is uncool; beliefs are a product of complicated factors; love personal stories
4 strengths of post-modernism
challenges the arrogance of modernism; more open minded to non-rigorous types of thinking; sensitive to diverse cultures; recognizes human understanding is limited
4 weaknesses of post-modernism
based on false antithesis; self-contradictory; no basis for handling moral issues; redefine tolerance to mean agreement
what false dichotomy is assumed in post-modernism?
either we can know something completely or we can't know it truly at all
what is perspectivalism?
we can only know a slice of truth because of our limited vantage point
how to respond to perspectivalism?
true but Someone can know & tell us (revelation)
how to respond to the false dichotomy of postmodernism?
is it possible for finite beings to know some things truly even if not completely
how to respond to objective to absolutes?
reveal inconsistency: postmodernists hold to absolutes too
how to respond to the elephant illustration?
if God exists & has spoken this changes everything; will you listen?
how to respond to the tolerance rap?
go beyond tolerance to love
why did the emergent church begin?
reacting to current state of church--too heady showy shallow etc.
what does the emergent church aim to do?
integrate post-modern thinking to be culturally relevant
the emergent church has changed not only _________ but also essential doctrine
name 3 emergent leaders
Brian McLaren Tony Jones Rob Bell
how to respond to emergents?
recognize differences among them; review the pastoral epistles stance on preaching/truth; reading culture is good but need essential doctrine
name 3 areas where emergents veer from essential doctrine
the atonement; evangelism preaching and teaching; importance of truth & rational thinking
3 qualities of a good ethical system
not contradictory; corresponds to reality; useful and applicable in real world
how can christian ethics be used in apologetics
contrast with other worldviews that are legalism and don't work in real world
how to respond to the inquisitive murderer dilemma
perfect ethics are never possible in a fallen world; appeal to prioritized ethics
the source of Christian ethics is always _____________
God and His Word
outside sources may check our interpretation of the Word but not ______
"how to respond to the ""Christian right"" in politics"
no NT case for pushing our ethics on secular government
what is the role of the OT law for Christians?
not under law as daily ethical code but it still shows right & wrong
Christian ethics are based on _______ not rules
what is meant by an ethical hierarchy?
ethics have a priority since perfect ethics aren't possible
what is the main principle in Biblical ethics?
What does Galatians 5:6 say?
"what really matters is ""faith working through love"""
What is a world view?
basic assumptions about reality that guide people's lives
Why is it important to understand different worldviews?
to avoid communication breakdowns in evangelism
What are 4 questions to evaluate worldviews?
adequacy coherence correspondence pragmatic
what is the adequacy test?
does your worldview explain the relevant data (ie reality)
what is the coherence test?
is the worldview internally consistent?
what is the correspondence test?
does your worldview match reality?
what is the pragmatic test?
what are the implications & do they work in real life?
what is the role of truth in spiritual warfare?
truth is our weapon against Satan
explain the metaphor of 2 Cor. 10:3-6
apologetics is a battle of beliefs/ideas; fortresses are ideas people have that act as barriers to gospel
what strategies does Satan use to deceive?
counterfeits slander stereotyping accusation
what are the 3 major eastern religions?
Hinduism Buddhism New Age Movement
how did Hinduism begin?
Aryan invaders of India developed priestly & religious traditions
what was the early Hindu view of God?
what is henotheistism?
1 supreme god among other possible gods
who is the supreme being of Hinduism?
what is syncretism?
blending many views (even if contradictory)
what is the current Hindu view of God?
Pantheism/Monism identifying god with the whole universe
what is the Hindu view of the natural world?
doesn't really matter or even exist--all an illusion
what does atman is brahman mean?
we are all god (part of god)
name the sacred texts of Hinduism
what is the difference between these texts?
Vedas focus on ceremonial/cultural; Upanishads focus on spiritual
what was the purpose of the Vedas?
keep power with priests by establishing caste system
what is inconsistent about Hinduism?
caste system if we are all part of god & individuality is illusion
how did Buddhism begin?
Siddhartha Gautama was Hindu but didn't like caste system experienced nirvana while meditating 40 days
what does buddha mean?
what are the 4 noble truths?
suffering is universal cause of suffering is selfish desire cure for suffering is to eliminate selfish desire follow the 8fold path
Buddha called his way of salvation what?
theory of the enlightened way
what are the 2 main doctrines of pantheism?
reincarnation & karma
Hinduism & Buddhism are ________________ in their view of God
how do pantheists justify their ignorance of god?
useless for finite mind to describe infinite god
what is the hindu view of creation?
inconsistent gods created out of existing materials ppl came from different body parts of brahma
what are the implications of eastern view of god & creation?
no distinction b/w creator & creation
what is the hindu view of the afterlife?
inconsistent: heaven or hell based on works; release from desire leading to oneness with god
what is the doctrine of reincarnation?
person's soul must be repeatedly recycled until achieving moksha (liberation) from suffering
what is the doctrine of karma?
determines next life based on works
how do buddhists believe they can be released from this world (maya)?
follow the 8fold path
"how to deal with a Western ""pantheist"""
educate on what the religion teaches & how inconsistent it is with logic
what are the main areas to educate a western pantheist about?
karmic fatalism & asceticism reincarnation & nirvana
what is karmic fatalism?
this life is a just retribution for past lives thus helping poor is messing w/karma
what is karmic asceticism?
way to work off bad karma b/c desire is evil; doesn't fit w/American materialism & sensuality
how is the Western view of reincarnation incorrect?
assume you came from & will return to better lives but selfish americans would return worse
how to use Christian doctrine with western pantheist?
connect their desire for spiritual experience with biblical prophesy or christian teaching
how to deal with a true pantheist?
address the question of authority in revelation; show inadequacy & incoherence of worldview
how is the pantheist worldview inadequate?
what about suffering? Afterlife is non-being? How do we deal w/life if all is illusion?
what is incoherent about the pantheist worldview?
self-refuting rejects rationality & law of non-contradiction
"how to deal with ""impossibility of infinite-finite relationship?"""
agree and point to grace
how to evoke disagreement from a syncretist?
show ireeconciliable differences about reincarnation nature of God exclusive divinity of Christ and salvation by grace
how did New Age start?
response to nihilism rediscovering Eastern religions syncretizing w/western traditions
what is emotional reasoning?
feelings create reality
what is selfism?
self is ultimate reality; new age is a leap in develop of humanity to new state
how can one access spiritual realm acc. To New Age?
drugs altered states of consciousness spirit guides etc.
what is the core experience of new age?
cosmic consciousness ie mystical experiences
what is the new age view of death?
physical death isn't the end--reincarnation or crossing over
how to respond to new age?
doesn't solve nihilist dilemna just ignores it; pantheon contradicts you are god; show epistemological nihilism
what is epistemological nihilism?
we can never know what really is if the self is god & reality is what we make of it
how to use Acts 17 approach with new age?
what if there is a verifiable God who is creator sustainer & judge?
what is a cult?
a religion regarded as unorthodox or spurious
"what is the fastest growing ""christian"" sect?"
what are 5 major characteristics of cults?
rejection of trinity (jc as God); belief that Xian churches are wrong; distort Bible; salvation by works; use of xian terms
what is the JW publishing co?
founder of JW?
Charles Taze Russell
what do JWs believe about afterlife?
no hell; hard works earn paradise; wicked annihilated; 144 000 go to heaven rest go to new earth
name a JW prophesy
Battle of Armageddon in 1914 etc.
what is the JW Bible called?
The New World Translation of the Christian Greek Scriptures