Final study guide all questions all weeks.csv

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  1. What is the biblical basis for all Christians being able to counsel?
    NT terms for counseling are addressed to all Christians
  2. What are the NT terms for counseling?
    parakaleo didasko noutheteo elencho epitimao
  3. What does parakaleo mean?
    to come alongside encourage comfort exhort
  4. Name a verse that uses parakaleo?
    1 Thes. 5:11
  5. What does didasko mean?
    teach instruct
  6. What does noutheteo?
    to stick in someone's mind/spear; admonish counsel
  7. Name a verse that uses noutheteo
    Rom. 15:14
  8. What does elencho mean?
    reprove expose convict refute to point out error
  9. What does epitimao mean?
    rebuke warn tell sternly
  10. What is the main goal of NT counseling?
  11. Counseling g is an essential part _______________.
  12. Name two verses stating the main goal of counseling.
    Gal. 6:1 1 Tim. 1:5
  13. What is the context for NT counseling?
    Christian community
  14. Name 4 counseling models.
    Dynamic Moral Relational Love Therapy
  15. What is the background of the Dynamic model?
    Freud psychotherapy prolonged time commitment w/therapist
  16. What are the presuppositions of the Dynamic model?
    humans are organisms emotional problems = sickness; subconscious causes problems
  17. What does healing look like in the Dynamic model?
    need to heal of past trauma by drawing out subconscious sources
  18. what are the Scriptural compatibilities of the dynamic model?
    depravity--can't understand why I'm doing what I do (Rom. 7); category for mental illness; sometimes not at fault for damage; past effects present; ppl capable of evaluative thinking
  19. what are the scriptural incompatibilities of the dynamic model?
    we are moral agents (Rom. 3:23); we are not essentially one way that can't be changed--not fated
  20. What is the background of the Moral model?
    Jay Adams most common in Christian counseling popular w/Reformed
  21. What are the presuppositions of the Moral model?
    wrong actions lead to wrong feelings and attitudes
  22. Evaluate the presuppositions of the moral model.
    true but don't know why you do what you do; legalistic: what about internal sins that aren't an action?
  23. What does healing look like according to the Moral model?
    do the right thing
  24. What are the scriptural compatibilities of the moral model?
    self-control is fruit of the spirit; admonishing is loving (but that's all they do); blessed (happy) if you do these things
  25. what are the scriptural incompatibilities of the moral model?
    discounts deeper causes (Jer. 17:9); deals w/external bh only
  26. what is the background of the relational model?
  27. what are the presuppositions of the relational model?
    designed to love & be loved; human problems are defensive attempts to handle fear; our reactions damage relationships more
  28. what does healing look like in the relational model?
    identify false beliefs replace w/ true beliefs act in faith gradual change in habits thinking attitudes and feelings result
  29. what are the scriptural compatibilities of the relational model?
    total depravity besetting sin role of ID in sanctification indicative/imperative
  30. what are the scriptural incompatibilities of the relational model?
    "over-reliance on ""feel the pain""; don't need to dwell on past in order to experience healing (but past is significant); Crabb has silly exegesis at times; unacquainted w/healthy Body Life"
  31. What are the main points in teaching the relationships chart?
    1. understand the primacy of love; 2. God's part vs. our part in learning & practicing it; 3. where love requires deliberate action; 4. Love is rooted in God & his Word; 5. love defines Christian ethics & spiritual life
  32. what are the basic qualities of love?
    gracious emotional disciplining sacrificial
  33. What distinction does 1 Pet. 1:22 make?
    phileo vs. agape: God gives us affection for others (indicative) & we need to sacrifice for others (imperative)
  34. What is 1 Cor. 16:14 about?
    love requires deliberate action
  35. name a verse about the primacy of love
    1 Tim. 1:5
  36. what is 1 John 4:16 about?
    love is rooted in God & His Word our source for understanding love
  37. name a verse that says love defines Christian ethics
    Gal. 5:14
  38. name 2 verses that say love defines spiritual life
    1 Jn. 4:12 20
  39. Describe the common experience of a casual relationship
    occasional contact fun times
  40. describe the common experience of a close relationship
    planned time have to see quality time shared goals
  41. describe the common experience of an intimate relationship
    extensive time commitment availability shared worlds
  42. describe the personal inner workings of a casual relationship
    a general knowledge see potential you open up
  43. describe the personal inner workings of a close relationship
    promote potential pointed questions share your life loyalty
  44. describe the personal inner workings of an intimate relationship
    completely open committed to growth affirmation & confrontation two-way relationship accountability
  45. describe the emotions of a casual relationship
    real warmth interest
  46. describe the emotions of a close relationship
    prioritize thankfulness dependency
  47. describe the emotions of an intimate relationship
    affection often verbal spontaneous expressions
  48. how can the relationships chart be applied?
    1. identify problem area; 2. appropriate God's power in these areas; 3. deepen a relationship by bringing it to the next level
  49. Why are many Christians skeptical of psychology?
    biblical anthropology doesn't square w/secular psychology
  50. What is a potential danger of Christian counseling?
    clergy-laity mentality
  51. explain the relationship between pastoral counseling & professional mental health treatment?
    head coach & sports med: refer people when they are injured & unable to play & need medical treatment; sports med doesn't call the plays
  52. explain the difference between diagnosis and ID in Christ
    diagnosis doesn't effect your ID in Christ; can change despite diagnosis/stigma
  53. we need to recognize the difference between mental illness and __________
    the worried well
  54. what is the DSM-IV?
    diagnostic and statistical manual--covers symptoms but not treatments
  55. what is the main qualifiers for mental illness?
    symptoms cause clinically significant distress or impairment
  56. what is another qualifier for mental illness?
    not explained by medical condition substance abuse or circumstance
  57. what are the 3 major affective disorders?
    major depression bipolar disorder dysthymic disorder
  58. what are the 2 main symptoms of depression?
    depressed mood most of day (most days 2 weeks); loss of interest in previous activities
  59. what is non-dysphoric depression?
    depression without sadness; may look like irritability/anger
  60. who is most at risk for non-dysphoric depression?
    middle-aged men
  61. what is major depressive disorder?
    major depressive episode plus impairment
  62. what is a major depressive episode?
    five or more of the 9 symptoms
  63. what is dysthymic disorder?
    depressed mood more days than not for past two years; no major depressive episode during 1st 2 years
  64. what are the 2 types of treatment that work for MDD?
    cognitive behavioral therapy interpersonal therapy
  65. what are 3 other treatments that work for MDD?
    meds exercise marital therapy (for depressed wife)
  66. what is bipolar disorder?
    recurrent major depression plus one manic or mixed episode
  67. what is a manic episode?
    abnormal & persistent elevated mood of at least 1 week
  68. what is a mixed episode?
    manic & depressive episode every day for 1 week rapid mood swings
  69. bipolar disorder is _______% genetic
  70. when is the typical onset for bipolar?
    teens/20s; sudden onset
  71. what treatment is necessary for bipolar?
  72. what is the main symptom of psychotic disorders?
    delusions or hallucinations
  73. name some psychotic disorders
    schizophrenia schizoaffective delusional disorder
  74. when is the typical onset for schizophrenia?
    mid to late 20s
  75. name some anxiety disorders
    panic disorders generalized anxiety disorder OCD social phobia PTSD special phobia
  76. anxiety & __________ often go together
  77. what is panic disorder?
    repeated sudden distinct episodes of extreme anxiety with physical symptoms
  78. what are obsessions in OCD?
    intrusive unwanted thoughts
  79. what are compulsions in OCD?
    "repeated actions that the person ""has to"" do"
  80. what is the most effective treatment for OCD?
    meds and treatment together
  81. how can you recognize PTSD?
    traumatic event plus reexperiencing symptoms avoidance
  82. what type of treatment works for PTSD?
  83. how can you recognize personality disorders?
    a long-term pattern of difficulty in interpersonal relationships
  84. name some personality disorders
    antisocial borderline histrionic narcissistic OCPD paranoid schizoid schizotypal
  85. how can you recognize antisocial personality?
    lying criminal w/no conscience
  86. how can you recognize borderline?
    miserable ppl w/no boundaries who love/hate impulsive
  87. what is the diff. b/w abuse and dependence?
    abuse: use w/consequences; dependence: use w/physiological or psychological addiction
  88. how to recognize substance abuse?
    failure to fulfill role obligations; legal problems continued use despite problems
  89. how to recognize substance dependence?
    tolerance withdrawal
  90. how to recognize ADD?
    inattention hyperactivity impulsivity; requires prof. diagnosis
  91. when do we need to refer someone to a mental health professional?
    psychotic suicidal severe depression substance dependence rule out medical cause get diagnosis/treatment
  92. what are risk factors for suicide?
    mental disorders previous attempts availability of means
  93. when is suicide an imminent danger?
    threatening to hurt/kill self; looking for means; talking/writing about death has made plans hopelessness
  94. how should you ask someone about suicidal intentions?
    directly; do they have a plan? Means?
  95. when should someone be hospitalized for mental health reasons?
    if they are an immanent threat to self or others; detox/withdrawal; sometimes anorexia
  96. what should you do if someone is suicidal?
    take them to ER; if they won't go call police
  97. what is the pastoral counselors' role after referring someone for prof. help?
    talk about treatment and make sure therapist isn't telling them unbiblical advice
  98. background of love therapy?
    Ankeman medical missionary connection between family relationships & physical ailments; blend of secular and biblical counseling
  99. presuppositions of love therapy?
    the key to emotional health is victorious love output
  100. what are the love defects?
    work sub work for love infantile
  101. what are the secular aspects of love therapy?
    mature love is inherently practiced in family model w/fallen imperfetions
  102. what are the biblical aspects of love therapy?
    primacy of love: failure to love leads to all sorts of emotional disorders including physical illnesses
  103. what are the love spheres?
    diffuse & tribal
  104. what is victorious love output
    mature love/love authority; wise biblica investment & discipline
  105. what does GEARS stand for?
    aspects of love: gracious emotional all people righteous sacrificial
  106. explain fences & gates
    fences = tribal (boundaries); gates = diffuse (ability to interact w/world); need both
  107. what is healing acc. To love therapy?
    gradual maturing process from infantile lvoe to spiritual (God's) love
  108. what does the infantile need to do to progress?
    learn mature love as work sub/work for love; Eph. 4:28
  109. what do work subs need to do to mature?
    practice emotional love step down from throne build signficance outside tribe
  110. what do work for loves need to do to mature?
    stop manipulating whining and being matrys/enablesrs; practice discipline love outside tribe
  111. what is Eph. 4:28 about?
    stop taking & start giving
  112. what are the scriptural incapabilities of love therapy
    weak understanding of identity truths
  113. which model is the best for counseling people?
    combo of love therapy & relational
  114. what is 1 Thes. 5:14 about?
    discerning the differences people need in counseling
  115. how can we resist rigidity in counseling?
    don't just tell people what you think--listen & draw out; know your tendencies as a counselor confer w/mature Christians
  116. what are 3 misuses of the temperaments?
    writing ppl off excusing sin using it as exclusivist language
  117. what are 4 proper uses of the temperaments?
    recognizing blends tendecies not sins appreciating God-given differences (imitate) resist sinful tendencies
  118. what is 1 Cor. 11:1 about?
    imitate me as I imitate Christ
  119. what two axes describe the temperaments?
    aggressive-passive and emotional-functional
  120. name 4 applications of the axes?
    team building team clashes recognizing crucial strengths & weaknesses
  121. name some sanguine weaknesses
    weak willed unstable undisciplined undependable egocentric exaggerates featful emotional over investment
  122. what are some counter-balances for the sanguine?
    routine commitment accountable in relationships & duties reflection learning to qualify not act finish old before new
  123. what are some sanguine positives?
    action-oriented charismatic & warm optimistic flexible
  124. how to support a sanguine?
    don't take away steam give opportunities to initiate use in public ways teach decision continuum
  125. what are some phlegm negatives?
    stingy fearful indecisive spectator unmotivated selfish self-righteous
  126. counter balances for phlegm?
    convict of sin surround with active temperaments define principles practice direct confrontation and real personal investment confess sin accountability & vulnerability
  127. what are some phlegm strengths?
    reliable sensible patient love stress-reducers (dry humor)
  128. how to promote a phlegm?
    objectivity intiial follow up administrators balancers
  129. choleric weaknesses?
    angry cruel sarcastic domineering inconsiderate impervious self-willed unemotional crafty
  130. counter balances for choleric?
    art of apology practicing emotional/nurtuing concern structure time for inner walk teach genuine obedience (trust God)
  131. strengths of choleric?
    great strategists get the job done
  132. how to promote a choleric?
    give plenty of encouragement & room; follow if possible
  133. weaknesses of mel?
    self-centered moody negative impractical anti social critical vengeful rigid
  134. counter balances for mel?
    resist brooding cultivate thankfulness connect abstract to practical
  135. strengths of mel?
    creative & artistic insightful can be aggressive & strategic
  136. how to promote a mel?
    they want to be listened to; help them turn theoretical into practical
  137. What does apologetics mean?
    to make a defense
  138. What does 1 Peter 3:15 say?
    but sanctify Christ as Lord in your hearts always being ready to make a defense to anyone who asks for the hope that is in you yet with gentleness and reverence
  139. What is 2 Tim. 2:23-26 about?
    be respectful and gentle; it's not about fighting/winning
  140. Why study apologetics?
    solidify faith; show you know what you're talking about; provide intellectual validity by showing weakness of other viewpoints
  141. what are some communication considerations?
    listen carefully; clarify issues/terms; remove barriers; present the gospel; avoid pitfalls; recognize closed mind; being in a relationship
  142. what is epistemology?
    the study of or understanding of the nature of knowledge
  143. why is epistemology important to apologetics?
    agreement on basis for truth is foundation to any conversation or philosophy
  144. what 2 principles define the foundationalist approach to epistemology?
    principle of non-contradiction; principle of causality
  145. define principle of non-contradiction
    any proposition must be free of internal contradictions (this is an assumption)
  146. define principle of causality
    for everything there must be a reason a cause; everything needs a sufficient reason why it's true
  147. how to respond to the non-foundationalist approach to epistemology?
    eastern intuition (v. cognition): provide foundationalism and dialogue about it
  148. how to use the Christian experiential approach?
    as a point of interest (your testimony); redirecting back to foundationalism
  149. what is the main point to demonstrate to an atheist?
    there is no airtight argument in favor of atheism; empiricism is an assumption
  150. what is the gardener argument?
    if you find a garden in the woods either it is there by chance or design; if you never see gardener he is non-verifiable but this does not mean he is non-existent
  151. how to address the problem of evil to an atheist?
    use a free will explanation then turn to subject of atonement
  152. what is the value of the teleological argument?
    lends likelihood to the existence of God
  153. what are other arguments that lend likelihood to God's existence?
    argument from personality morality and meaning (presuppositions)
  154. atheism is ultimately a ______________ position
  155. an honest atheist would be ______________
  156. what type of truth is ascertained outside empiricism?
    innate knowledge (morality); self-awareness (I exist)
  157. define agnosticism
    without knowledge
  158. how to defeat dogmatic agnosticism?
    show it is self-defeating: how much don't you know?
  159. why doesn't non-dogmatic agnosticism need to be defeated?
    because it should lead to an openness to the possibility of theism
  160. what should be the goal of apologetics with an agnostic?
    demonstrate evidence for the Christian God; encourage investigation
  161. define releativism/post-modernism?
    there are no absolutes whatever you believe is true for you; everything is relative to individual experience
  162. how to refute postmodernism?
    law of non-contradition: everything is relative is an absolute
  163. what 2 other absolutes support the basic postmodern absolute?
    casuality: implies sufficient reason why everything is relevant; non-contradictions: implies it isn't contraditory but it is so other things might be true
  164. what should we try to show a deist?
    that theistic answer is just as good and even better than desism especially with problem of evil
  165. what are the 2 main points to make to a deist?
    the existence of revelation: plausible & possible; the deity of Christ: predictive prophesy Christ as God-->intervention
  166. what is the most important point to make regarding comparative religion?
    not all religions can be true
  167. what do we need to show the monist/pantheist?
    demonstrate key problems regarding reincarnation view of afterlife no answer to problem of evil caste system view of women fatalistic passivity
  168. every major monotheistic religion has roots in ____________
    the Bible
  169. what to show about Islam?
  170. what to show about Judaism?
    legalistic; Messianic prophesy
  171. what to show about legalistic Christianity?
    refute from Bible
  172. what to show about liberal and & neo-orthodox theology?
    show it is putting experience over the Bible
  173. what to show about universalism?
    the lack of human responsibility clearluggests that God is responsible; thus God is actually evil
  174. what to say when people bring up church history?
    agree it is wrong and not what Christ taught
  175. what are the 3 main types of theistic apologistics?
    classical evidentialist and presuppositional
  176. what arguments fall under classical apologetics?
    ontological teleological (design) cosmological scientific
  177. summarize the ontological argument
    we can think of God therefore He exists
  178. critique the ontological argument
    we cannot deduce the existence of a being from the idea of that being; involves untrue premises & faulty logic
  179. summarize the teleological argument
    presence of order in the universe reques the existence of an orderer
  180. what is the classic teleological illustration
    Paley's watch
  181. critique the teleological argument
    """design"" needs to be defined; involves special pleading (God made the world but not evil); anthropic principle; what makes watch stand out?; doesn't lead to biblical monotheism"
  182. what is the best way to use the design argument?
    as inductive argument which points to the presence of a designer as one of the more likely explanations for apparent design
  183. natural selection explains which forms of life ________ but not which forms ________
    survive arrive
  184. what is the cosmological arguemnt?
    considers why anything exists; Uncaused Cause
  185. what are some scientific arguments?
    universe had a beginning otherwise it would be total chaos by now; universe is expanding not oscillating (big bang)
  186. critique the cosmological argument
    special pleading: why doesn't God need a cause?; infinity doesn't need initial cause; shows problems with naturalism but can't prove existence of God
  187. what is evidentialist apologetics?
    inductive approach similar to courtroom evidence showing most probable explanation
  188. what is the main argument of evidential apologetics?
    historical argument: Bible is historically reliable Bible teaches Jesus claimed to be God; Lord Liar Lunatic
  189. what supporting details are used in evidential apologetics?
    fulfilled prophesy empty tomb rise of Christianity Christian martyrs
  190. critique evidential apologetics
    "can't provide historicity of gospels 100% lack secular correlation; empty tomb is argument from silence; Lord Liar Lunatic is more helpful to deal with ""good man"" theory; some evidentialists misquote authorities"
  191. what are the strengths of evidentialist approach?
    strengthens faith of Christians; fulfilled prophesy is most useful for non-Christians; pre-evangelism: create curiosity & deal with misconception that there is no evidence for Christianity
  192. summarize pressuppositional apologetics?
    everyone has certain presuppositions which often contradict their claimed worldview
  193. summarize the presuppositional models
    help people discover their presuppositions push them to their logical conclusion & show how Christian worldview is more consistent with their presuppositiosn
  194. communicate guidelines for the presuppositional model?
    it is confrontative so only use where resistence is already present or in public speaking; can be hard for people to understand
  195. what is taylor's explanation?
    the railroad rock illustration
  196. Describe the pre-modern epistemology.
    up to 16th century presupposed omniscient God; universe open superstitious
  197. describe the modern epistemology
    "Western 17th century on; absolute truth attainable thru science; universe closed; starts with ""I"" not God; correspondence view of truth"
  198. describe the postmodern epistemology
    1970s on; truth is relative based on perspective; starts w/I; emphasizes culture; anti-foundational; not possible to know absolute truth
  199. 4 implications of post-modernism
    no objective morality; evangelism is uncool; beliefs are a product of complicated factors; love personal stories
  200. 4 strengths of post-modernism
    challenges the arrogance of modernism; more open minded to non-rigorous types of thinking; sensitive to diverse cultures; recognizes human understanding is limited
  201. 4 weaknesses of post-modernism
    based on false antithesis; self-contradictory; no basis for handling moral issues; redefine tolerance to mean agreement
  202. what false dichotomy is assumed in post-modernism?
    either we can know something completely or we can't know it truly at all
  203. what is perspectivalism?
    we can only know a slice of truth because of our limited vantage point
  204. how to respond to perspectivalism?
    true but Someone can know & tell us (revelation)
  205. how to respond to the false dichotomy of postmodernism?
    is it possible for finite beings to know some things truly even if not completely
  206. how to respond to objective to absolutes?
    reveal inconsistency: postmodernists hold to absolutes too
  207. how to respond to the elephant illustration?
    if God exists & has spoken this changes everything; will you listen?
  208. how to respond to the tolerance rap?
    go beyond tolerance to love
  209. why did the emergent church begin?
    reacting to current state of church--too heady showy shallow etc.
  210. what does the emergent church aim to do?
    integrate post-modern thinking to be culturally relevant
  211. the emergent church has changed not only _________ but also essential doctrine
  212. name 3 emergent leaders
    Brian McLaren Tony Jones Rob Bell
  213. how to respond to emergents?
    recognize differences among them; review the pastoral epistles stance on preaching/truth; reading culture is good but need essential doctrine
  214. name 3 areas where emergents veer from essential doctrine
    the atonement; evangelism preaching and teaching; importance of truth & rational thinking
  215. 3 qualities of a good ethical system
    not contradictory; corresponds to reality; useful and applicable in real world
  216. how can christian ethics be used in apologetics
    contrast with other worldviews that are legalism and don't work in real world
  217. how to respond to the inquisitive murderer dilemma
    perfect ethics are never possible in a fallen world; appeal to prioritized ethics
  218. the source of Christian ethics is always _____________
    God and His Word
  219. outside sources may check our interpretation of the Word but not ______
  220. "how to respond to the ""Christian right"" in politics"
    no NT case for pushing our ethics on secular government
  221. what is the role of the OT law for Christians?
    not under law as daily ethical code but it still shows right & wrong
  222. Christian ethics are based on _______ not rules
    moral principles
  223. what is meant by an ethical hierarchy?
    ethics have a priority since perfect ethics aren't possible
  224. what is the main principle in Biblical ethics?
  225. What does Galatians 5:6 say?
    "what really matters is ""faith working through love"""
  226. What is a world view?
    basic assumptions about reality that guide people's lives
  227. Why is it important to understand different worldviews?
    to avoid communication breakdowns in evangelism
  228. What are 4 questions to evaluate worldviews?
    adequacy coherence correspondence pragmatic
  229. what is the adequacy test?
    does your worldview explain the relevant data (ie reality)
  230. what is the coherence test?
    is the worldview internally consistent?
  231. what is the correspondence test?
    does your worldview match reality?
  232. what is the pragmatic test?
    what are the implications & do they work in real life?
  233. what is the role of truth in spiritual warfare?
    truth is our weapon against Satan
  234. explain the metaphor of 2 Cor. 10:3-6
    apologetics is a battle of beliefs/ideas; fortresses are ideas people have that act as barriers to gospel
  235. what strategies does Satan use to deceive?
    counterfeits slander stereotyping accusation
  236. what are the 3 major eastern religions?
    Hinduism Buddhism New Age Movement
  237. how did Hinduism begin?
    Aryan invaders of India developed priestly & religious traditions
  238. what was the early Hindu view of God?
  239. what is henotheistism?
    1 supreme god among other possible gods
  240. who is the supreme being of Hinduism?
  241. what is syncretism?
    blending many views (even if contradictory)
  242. what is the current Hindu view of God?
    Pantheism/Monism identifying god with the whole universe
  243. what is the Hindu view of the natural world?
    doesn't really matter or even exist--all an illusion
  244. what does atman is brahman mean?
    we are all god (part of god)
  245. name the sacred texts of Hinduism
    Vedas Upanishads
  246. what is the difference between these texts?
    Vedas focus on ceremonial/cultural; Upanishads focus on spiritual
  247. what was the purpose of the Vedas?
    keep power with priests by establishing caste system
  248. what is inconsistent about Hinduism?
    caste system if we are all part of god & individuality is illusion
  249. how did Buddhism begin?
    Siddhartha Gautama was Hindu but didn't like caste system experienced nirvana while meditating 40 days
  250. what does buddha mean?
    enlightened one
  251. what are the 4 noble truths?
    suffering is universal cause of suffering is selfish desire cure for suffering is to eliminate selfish desire follow the 8fold path
  252. Buddha called his way of salvation what?
    theory of the enlightened way
  253. what are the 2 main doctrines of pantheism?
    reincarnation & karma
  254. Hinduism & Buddhism are ________________ in their view of God
  255. how do pantheists justify their ignorance of god?
    useless for finite mind to describe infinite god
  256. what is the hindu view of creation?
    inconsistent gods created out of existing materials ppl came from different body parts of brahma
  257. what are the implications of eastern view of god & creation?
    no distinction b/w creator & creation
  258. what is the hindu view of the afterlife?
    inconsistent: heaven or hell based on works; release from desire leading to oneness with god
  259. what is the doctrine of reincarnation?
    person's soul must be repeatedly recycled until achieving moksha (liberation) from suffering
  260. what is the doctrine of karma?
    determines next life based on works
  261. how do buddhists believe they can be released from this world (maya)?
    follow the 8fold path
  262. "how to deal with a Western ""pantheist"""
    educate on what the religion teaches & how inconsistent it is with logic
  263. what are the main areas to educate a western pantheist about?
    karmic fatalism & asceticism reincarnation & nirvana
  264. what is karmic fatalism?
    this life is a just retribution for past lives thus helping poor is messing w/karma
  265. what is karmic asceticism?
    way to work off bad karma b/c desire is evil; doesn't fit w/American materialism & sensuality
  266. how is the Western view of reincarnation incorrect?
    assume you came from & will return to better lives but selfish americans would return worse
  267. how to use Christian doctrine with western pantheist?
    connect their desire for spiritual experience with biblical prophesy or christian teaching
  268. how to deal with a true pantheist?
    address the question of authority in revelation; show inadequacy & incoherence of worldview
  269. how is the pantheist worldview inadequate?
    what about suffering? Afterlife is non-being? How do we deal w/life if all is illusion?
  270. what is incoherent about the pantheist worldview?
    self-refuting rejects rationality & law of non-contradiction
  271. "how to deal with ""impossibility of infinite-finite relationship?"""
    agree and point to grace
  272. how to evoke disagreement from a syncretist?
    show ireeconciliable differences about reincarnation nature of God exclusive divinity of Christ and salvation by grace
  273. how did New Age start?
    response to nihilism rediscovering Eastern religions syncretizing w/western traditions
  274. what is emotional reasoning?
    feelings create reality
  275. what is selfism?
    self is ultimate reality; new age is a leap in develop of humanity to new state
  276. how can one access spiritual realm acc. To New Age?
    drugs altered states of consciousness spirit guides etc.
  277. what is the core experience of new age?
    cosmic consciousness ie mystical experiences
  278. what is the new age view of death?
    physical death isn't the end--reincarnation or crossing over
  279. how to respond to new age?
    doesn't solve nihilist dilemna just ignores it; pantheon contradicts you are god; show epistemological nihilism
  280. what is epistemological nihilism?
    we can never know what really is if the self is god & reality is what we make of it
  281. how to use Acts 17 approach with new age?
    what if there is a verifiable God who is creator sustainer & judge?
  282. what is a cult?
    a religion regarded as unorthodox or spurious
  283. "what is the fastest growing ""christian"" sect?"
  284. what are 5 major characteristics of cults?
    rejection of trinity (jc as God); belief that Xian churches are wrong; distort Bible; salvation by works; use of xian terms
  285. what is the JW publishing co?
    The Watchtower
  286. founder of JW?
    Charles Taze Russell
  287. what do JWs believe about afterlife?
    no hell; hard works earn paradise; wicked annihilated; 144 000 go to heaven rest go to new earth
  288. name a JW prophesy
    Battle of Armageddon in 1914 etc.
  289. what is the JW Bible called?
    The New World Translation of the Christian Greek Scriptures
  290. what orthodox beliefs do JWs deny?
    trinity Christ's deity bodily resurrection Christ's full atonment hell & eternal punishment
  291. what do they believe about the 2nd coming?
    already happened in 1914 invisible JC now rules
  292. what do they believe about Jesus?
    given honor; mighty god created by Almighty God; Michael the archangel
  293. what do they believe about HS?
    invisible force not personal
  294. what do they believe about atonement?
    Christ paid for Adam's sin making it possible for ppl to be saved by good works
  295. what can you tell a JW you are reaching out to?
    following theology of a fraud; cast doubt on Watchtower's authority; grace vs. works
  296. founder of Mormonism?
    Joseph Smith
  297. what are the Mormon scriptures?
    book of Mormon Doctrines and Covenants Bible and Pearl of Great Price
  298. who took control of Mormon church after Smith died?
    Brigham Young
  299. how has Mormon doctrine changed over time?
    polygamy racism mixed marriage no longer sanctioned
  300. how do Mormons justify their changing doctrines?
    revelation continues today
  301. how do Mormons view the Bible?
    tainted by mistranslation
  302. what Mormon beliefs contradict Christianity?
    revelation continues after apostles; trinity is 3 gods; we can attain god-hood; Jesus is a lesser created god; salvation by works; 3 levels of heaven most humans go to heaven
  303. what is eternal progression?
    God had a physical body and attained his exalted state
  304. what do Mormons believe about Jesus?
    a lesser created god Michael
  305. what is the role of grace according to Mormons?
    dealing with Adam's sin so we can now be saved by works in the Mormon church; can lose salvation
  306. what is the largest Muslim sect?
  307. how did Islam begin?
    Muhammad believed he received visions in 610 which he dictated into the Qur'an; taught throughout Arabian peninsula & gained political power
  308. how did Islam spread in the early days?
    among the poor; at first by teaching & later by the sword
  309. "what are the ""two branches of Muslim learning?"""
    theology (Tawhid) and law (Shari'a)
  310. what are the 6 main doctrines a Muslim must believe?
    one God angels & demons Qur'an as authoritative scripture resurrection of dead & judgment by deeds Muhammad is last & greatest of 28 prophets; predestination (not Shi'ites)
  311. what are the 5 pillars of Muslim faith?
    statement of the creed prayer almsgiving fasting and the pilgrimage
  312. what is the 6th religious duty?
    jihad or holy war (lit. striving)
  313. what 4 books do Muslims consider inspired?
    the Torah Psalms Injil and Qur'an; all but Qur'an contain error
  314. how does Islam differ from Christianity in doctrine?
    deny Trinity; God is transcendent not personally knowable; pick & choose from Bible
  315. name some problems with the Qur'an
    no proof low view of women admittedly contradicts itself supports holy war
  316. what do Muslims believe about Jesus?
    not God born of a virgin sinless prophet but less than Muhammad not killed or resurrected (Judas was crucified)
  317. what is the problem with the Muslim view of salvation
    by works (contradicts Torah) & doesn't explain how righteous God can accept sinful men; also not clear on how good you have to be
  318. how do Shi'ites differ from Sunnis?
    exalt Muhammad's family pray 3x/day; emphasis on martyrdom; return of last Imam prior to judgment day; prostitution & lying; free will; Imam's teaching infallible
  319. how to Sufis differ from Sunnis?
    emphasize spiritual experience in this life; influenced by other religions; Allah is all that matters deny evil preexistence of soul
  320. how to reach out to a Muslim?
    they respect Jesus so describe his life story & encourage to read Injil before addressing deity; connect to Shi'ite motifs of passion & 2nd coming; don't argue or attack Muhammad or Qur'an
  321. what do Muslims believe about Jesus's Second Coming?
    he will return before Muhammad get married destroy crosses & pigs deny the crucifixion & His deity and die
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