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What does enzymatic oxidative browning require? And what is it seen mostly in?
- Requires: Phenolic compound, Enzyme, Oxygen
- Seen Mostly In: Potatoes, mushrooms, apples, bananas, peaches, avocados, pears
How do you prevent oxidative browning?
- 1. Acid pH, reduce activity of enzyme
- 2. Sulfur found in pineapple juice, apricots, golden raisins
- 3. Reduce oxygen availability (coat with sugar or sugar solution)
- 4. Denature enzyme (blanch foods for freezing)
- 5. Coat with antioxidant such as fresh fruit
- 1. Voluntary (USDA)
- 2. Bases on size, uniformity of color and shape, texture and defects
- 3. US fancy, US #1, US #2, US #3
Which apples are good for eating raw, crisp, juicy flesh but not hold shape or maintain flavor when cooked?
- 1. Golden Delicious
- 2. Red Delicious
- 3. Gala
Which are best for cooking (maintain shape)?
- 1. Rome Beauty
- 2. Winesap
- 3. Jonathon
Which apples can be used for both cooking and eating raw?
- 1. Granny Smith
- 2. Jonathan
- 3. Johnny Gold
- 4. Fuji
- 5. Braeburn
- 6. Golden Delicious
- 7. Winesap
What does ethylene gas do to fruit?
- 1. Ripening hormone
- 2. Produced in cells after fruit is mature
- 3. Increases production when peeled or sliced
- 4. May be used to ripen fruit (bananas or apples in paper bag with other fruit)
What do you look for when selecting fruit?
1. Bright color, firm, no bruises or decay, not soft or mushy.
What happens when fruit is cooked in water?
Absorbs water, ruptures cells
What happens when fruits are cooked in concentrated sugar solution?
Dehydrates cell structure resulting in tough fruit
What happens to the texture, color, and flavor when cooking fruits?
- 1. Texture: Moisture degrades fiber
- 2. Color Changes: (Changes in acid content and reactions
- with metal)
- 3. Flavor: becomes more mild, sugar and esters of organic acids lost in cooking
What happenes when fruits are cooked in oncentrated sugar solution
Carotenoid and Anthocyanin Pigments
What happens when canned juices react with anthocyanin pigment?
- 1.Iron salts in canning process
- 2. Pineapple juice with anthocyanin = blue
- 3. Orange juice and anthocyanin = brown
Why can't kiwi's be used in jello? What could it be used for?
- 1.Degenerates protein enzyme Actinidin
- 2. Used as a meat tenderizer but cannot be
- used in gelatin
What are kumquats?
Minature oranges found in china and japan
Things to know about strawberries... Ripen? Best taste? Storage?
- 1. Keep dry, don’t wash until ready to use
- 2. Won’t ripen once picked
- 3. Small to medium size better tasting
Which kinds of peaches are used for canning? Freezing and eating raw?
- 1. Freestone: used for eating and freezing
- 2. Clingstone: used for canning
What are some examples of climacteric fruits?
Climacteric: Apple, apricot, avocado, banana, peach, pear, plum tomato and tropical fruits
What are non-climacteric fruits? Examples?
- 1. Non-climacteric (harvested when ripe)
- 2. Cherry, citrus fruits, fig, grapes, melons, pineapple, strawberry
What is a vegetable? What dies it provide to a menu?
- 1. Plant served as part of meal
- 2. Provides color, flavor, and texture to a menu
Intake of which vegetables are increasing in America?
- 1. Icerberg Lettuce
- 2. Potatoes
- 3. Canned tomatoes
What is important about vegetable composition?
- 1. Increased starch
- 2. Decreased sugar compared with fruit
- 3. With storage, sugar goes to starch
- 4. Source of Vitamins and fiber
Why are the leaves an important part of nutrition?
- 1. Where photosynthesis takes place
- 2. Broad thin surface
- 3. CHO formed in photosynthesis and carried to other parts of plant so low in CHO
- 4. Good source of calcium, pro-vit A, Vit C
- 5. Brussel sprouts, cabbage, celery, greens, lettuce, spinach, kale
What vegetables are fruits?
- Tomatoes, eggplant, peppers, cucumbers,
- pumpkin, sweet corn
What vegetables are flowers?
Cauliflower, broccoli, artichoke
Which vegetables are stems?
What are Roots, Tubers, and Bulbs? Examples?
- 1. Good form of starch
- 2. Storage for the plant
- 3. Beets, carrots, parsnips, potatoes, yams, turnips, onion, leeks, garlic
Which vegetables are seeds?
- 1. beans
- 2. Corn
- 3. Lentils
- 4. peas
What are the 5 general types of potatoes? What is their percent starch by weight?
- 1. 65% – 85% starch by weight
- 2. 5 general types: Russet (long and round), Long
- white, Round white, Round red
How are potatoes classified? What do these classifications mean? What are the separate types used for?
- 1. Classified as mealy or waxy
- 2. Mealy- Increased starch, increased specific gravity (sinkers) Used for baking, mashing, and French frying
- 3. Waxy, reduced starch, increased moisture- Used for salads, boiling preparation, frying
Which veg has the highest edible portion and least edible portion?
- Artichokes 60%
- Broccoli 39%
- Cabbage 20%
- Carrots 11%
- Cauliflower 61%
- Potatoes 19%
- Tomatoes 9%
What are the federal requirements of information on labels?
- Common or usual name
- Form of product, sliced, whole, etc.
- Variety for some products
- Liquid product is packed in
- Total contents (net weight)
- Additional ingredients
- Any special type of treatment
- Packers name and place of business
- Nutrition labeling.
What plant pigment is found in carrots, tomatoes, and what is the general coloration?
- 1. Carotene-Carrots
- 2. Lycopene- Tomatoes
What influences the color carotenoid vegetables? What color are they originally?
- 1. Carotenoids – yellow orange color
- Carotene – carrots
- Lycopene – tomatoes
- 2. Relatively insoluble in water
- 3. Alkali - no effect on color
- 4. Acid – small decrease in color intensity
What influences the color chlorophyll vegetables?
What color are they originally?Water solubility? Alkali? Acid? Prolonged heating?
- Green - beans, broccoli, sugar snap peas
- Water soluble
- Alkali – brightens color
- Acid – dark green to olive green color
- Prolonged heating – pheophytins formed
What is the name of the plant pigment found in red cabbage?
What influences the color anthocyanin vegetables? What color are they originally?Water solubility? Alkali? Acid? Is it reversible?
- Anthocyanin – Red
- Red Cabbage
- Water soluble
- Alkali – changes to purple and then to blue – green
- Acid – Intensifies color
- Color change is reversible
What is the main plant pigment found in cauliflower, onion, cabbage?
What influences the color anthoxanthin vegetables? What color are they originally?Water solubility? Alkali? Acid?
- Flavenoids –white
- Cauliflower, onion, cabbage
- Soluble in water
- Alkali – turns yellow
- Acid – remains white
What is the plant pigment in beets?
What influences the color betalin vegetables? What color are they originally?Water solubility? Alkali? Acid?
- Deep red – beets
- Water soluble
- Alkali – turns yellow
- Acid – intensifies color
- More purple in lower pH range
How do you cook veggies on the stove top?
- Start Veg to cook in Boiling water (except potatoes, start in cold water)
- Return water to boil quickly
- Then simmer, don’t want to rapidly boil veg.
- Cook in barely enough water to cover. Lid on pan.
- Cook only until barely done
What are the two exceptions when cooking vegetables?
- 1. Lid off pan when a green veg. requires more than 5 minutes cooking time
- 2. Large amounts of water are used for strong flavored vegetables
How do you cook vegetables in the microwave?
- Microwave cooking retains color and flavor in some vegetables
- Cooking loss for broccoli has been shown lower in microwave cooking
- Potatoes cooked in microwave ovens, are reported to score lower in eating quality compared to conventional cooking
What is this vegetable?
What is this vegetable?
Why should most vegtables be cooked in small amout of water?
To retain nutrients, color, so they wont get mushy