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  1. Digestive tract is also called
    • Alimentary Tract or Canal
    • Also called GI (gastrointestinal) tract because of the importance of the stomach and intestines
  2. Digestive tract is __ feet long(in adult male)
    • 27
    • (every part lined with mucus membrane)
  3. Organs of the digestive tract
    • 1.Mouth
    • 2.Pharynx
    • 3.Esophagus (diaphragm closes around)
    • 4.Stomach (LUQ)
    • 5.Small Intestines
    • 6.Large Intestines
    • 7.Anus
  4. Accessory Organs of the Digestive System
    • 1.Salivary Glands
    • 2.Liver (RUQ)
    • 3.Gall Bladder (tucked up underneath the liver)
    • 4.Pancreas (epigastric area of abdomen)
  5. Walls of the Digestive Tract
    • 1.Mucous membrane lining
    • 2.Connective Tissue Layer
    • 3.Smooth muscle layer with two types of muscle action
    • a.local muscle contractions for mixing
    • b.peristalsis: wave-like muscle contractions that move "food" along the tract
    • 4.outer layer of connective tissue
    • 5.below diaphragm, the outer layer is instead the peritoneum, a 2 layered serous membrane covering over the organs of the abdominal and some of the organs of the pelvic cavity and lining the abdominal/pelvic cavities themselves.
  6. Sections of the peritoneum anchor various organs in place
    • 1.Anterior tissues
    • a.greater omentum
    • b.lesser omentum
    • 2.Posterior tissues
    • a.mesentary
    • b.mesocolon
  7. Mesentery
    • A double layered portion of the peritoneum shaped like a fan.
    • Attached to the posterior abdominal wall, and the expanded long edge is attached to the small intestine
  8. Mesocolon
    The section of the peritoneum that extends from the colon to the posterior abdominal wall.
  9. Greater Omentum
    A large double layer of the peritoneum containing much fat hangs like an apron over the front of the intestines.Extends from the lower border of the stomach into the pelvic cavity and then loops back up to the transverse colon.
  10. Lesser Omentum
    Smaller than the greater omentum, extends between the stomach and the liver
  11. Functions of the Digestive Tract
    • 1.Ingestion: process where "food" is taken into the mouth, chewed (mastication), and swallowed (deglutition)
    • 2.Digestion: process where "food" is mechanically broken down and chemically split into different smaller substances
    • Proteins become amino acids
    • CHO become simple sugars
    • Fats become fatty acids and glycerol
    • 3.Absorption: process where nutrients pass into the bloodstream (much of the fat in the form of fatty acids and glycerol goes into the lymph then into the bloodstream)
    • 4.Elimination: process where undigested and unabsorbed "food" leaves the digestive tract by the process of defecation
  12. Mouth
    Image Upload 1
  13. Parts of the Mouth
    • 1.Lips
    • 2.Oral Cavity
    • 3.Tongue
    • a.lingual frenulum
    • b.taste buds: sweet, salty/both in front of tongue, sour/sides, bitter/back, umami(pungent or savory)
    • 4.Gingival tissue (gums)
  14. Anatomy of the tooth
    Image Upload 2
  15. There are _____temporary teeth and ___permanent teeth.
    20 & 32

    • 1.central incisors:2 on top and 2 on bottom
    • 2. lateral incisors:2 on top and 2 on bottom
    • 3. canines: 2 on top , 2 on bottom
    • 4.premolars:4 on top and 4 on bottom
    • 5.molars: 6 on top, 6 on bottom (last set of molars called wisdom teeth)
  16. Salivary Glands
    • produce saliva with enzymes to digest starch, food is moistened into a bolus for swallowing.
    • Parotid glands/below & in front of ears
    • Submandibular glands/underneath the mandible
    • Sublingual glands/under tongue
  17. Pharynx
    in the oropharynx swallowing happens; this means a bolus of food is moved into the esophagus
  18. Uvula
    Piece of tissue hanging down (punching bag) assists with swallowing. Keeps things from going up into the nose when swallowing. A piece of tissue with some cartilage. No ducts or secretions.
  19. Esophagus is_______to the trachea
  20. Hiatal hernia
    A defect in the wall of the diaphragm where the esophagus goes through. Too much space around esophagus
  21. LES (lower esophageal sphincter)
    Want it to stay closed normally until food gets to it.
  22. Heartburn
    hydrochloric acid goes up into esophagus causing burning sensation near the heart
  23. Stomach
    J shaped/hot dog shaped. Very muscular storage pouch, want food to stay in it for 2-4 hours

    Water, some meds & alcohol absorbed into the stomach
  24. Hydrochloric Acid (HCI)
    very strong, kills microorganisms, breaks down connective tissue in meats
  25. Intrinsic factor
    impacts on B12/ many people make less with age so can end up with B12 deficiency
  26. Mucus
    help make food more slippery, to break down foods into fatty acids, amino acids & glucose
  27. Rugae
    folds from empty stomach shrinking.Nerve receptors under rugae only feel then when stomach is full and rugae are stretched
  28. chyme
    semi-liquid food
  29. Pyloric Sphincter
    • keeps food in stomach, opens a little and lets in about one tsp full of food into the small intestines
    • "Dumping syndrome" stomach emptying too much food into small intestines
  30. Small intestines
    • The most absorption happens here as well as majority of digestion/cells have secretions that contain enzymes
    • Sections:
    • duodenum closest to stomach
    • jejunum middle most part
    • ileum closest to large intestines
    • Villi: microscopic projections increase absorption rate. Lacteals witin villi absorb majority of fat.
    • Lacteals: within villi, sends fat up to subclavian vein
  31. Pancreas
    • Is an accessory organ of the digestive system, the only exocrine and endocrine gland in the body
    • Excretions are very alkaline to neutralize stomach acid, so it doesn't burn small intestines
    • Functions exocrine creates secretion that flows through a tube to another part of the body (duodenum) only organ in the body to digest proteins, fats & CHO
  32. Liver
    • the largest and most complex glandular organ in the body
    • Blood supply In: hepatic arteries/bring liver O2
    • In:hepatic portal vein/collection of veins from stomach, pancreas,spleen & intestines Out hepatic veins inferior vena cava
Card Set
Digestive System
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