BIOCHM E3 C10 FINAL

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BIOCHM E3 C10 FINAL
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2011-11-29 14:20:48
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BIOCHM E3 C10 FINAL
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BIOCHM E3 C10 FINAL
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  1. DEFINE GLYCOLYSIS
    anaerobic process-doesn’t need O2
  2. T OR F?
    Glycolysis (anaerobic process-doesn’t need O2) occurs
    in almost every living cell (cytoplasm).
    TRUE
  3. PYRUVATE PROCESSED WITH AND WITHOUT O2 YIELDS WHAT?
    • WITHOUT....LACTATE
    • WITH.....ACETYL-COA-->ETS.
  4. RESULTS IN two three-carbon pyruvate units.
    • GLYCOLYSIS
    • []---->[ ]
    • GLUCOSE IS A 6 SIDED MOLECULE...BROKEN DOWN INTO (2) 3 CARBON UNITS.
  5. Activated when cells need energy-inhibited when plenty of ATP (A FEEDBACK MECHANISM)
    GLYCOLYSIS
  6. Process that captures some energy as
    2 ATP and 2 NADH
    GLYCOLYSIS
  7. WHAT IS THIS?
    • Adenosine monophosphate
    • AMP

    JUST ADD TO THE PHOSPHATE TO GET DI, TRI.
  8. WHAT IS THIS?
    NICOTINAMIDE
  9. WHAT IS THIS?
    • Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide (NAD)
    • A CO-ENZYME.
    • NAD+
    • NADP+ NOTIC OH(PO23) ON BOTTOM.
  10. FINISH THIS:
  11. WHY DOES ATP GIVE E IF IT TAKES E TO BREAK ITS BONDS?
    E PRODUCTS ARE GREATER THAT WHAT IS PUT IN.
  12. ID IRREVERSIBLE AND REVERSIBLE
    (THERMODYNAMTICS)
  13. STAGE 1 OF GLYCOLTIC PATHWAY
    E INVEST OR PRODUCING?
    INVESTMENT WITH ATP---> ADP
  14. T OR F ?
    PHOSPLORATION PREVENTS GLUCOSE FROM LEAVING THE CELL.
    TRUE
  15. GLYCOLYTIC PATHWAY FORMULA.
    • D-Glucose + 2 ADP + 2 Pi + 2 NAD+ --->
    • 2 pyruvate + 2 ATP + 2 NADH + 2 H+ + 2 H2O
  16. THE PYRUVATE FROM THE GLYCOLYTIC PATHWAY GOES TO WHAT?
    TCA (KREBS) CYCLE
  17. International Union of Biochemistry (IUB) instituted a naming convention for enzymes, based upon WHAT?
    the type of chemical reaction catalyzed.
  18. Six major enzyme categories
    • Oxidoreductases ---ox/red
    • Transferases---transfer structural group
    • Hydrolases—break down via hydrolysis
    • Lyases---groups removed to form a double bond or added to a double bond.
    • Isomerases---Intramolecular rearrangement
    • Ligases---Join groups/structures together
  19. Intramolecular rearrangement
    WHAT ENZYME?
    Isomerases
  20. groups are removed by
    elimination to form a double bond or added to a double bond..WHAT ENZYME?
    Lyases
  21. EXAMPLE OF Transferases
    HEXKINASE
  22. T OR F?
    Phosphorylation of glucose (kinase) prevents transport out of the cell and increases reactivity
    TRUE
  23. WHAT IS THE FIRST Reaction of the Glycolytic Pathway?
    • Synthesis of glucose-6-phosphate
    • -Hexokinase Mg+2 cofactor....ATP -->ADP
    • -IRREVERSIBLE
    • -Phosphorylation of glucose (kinase) prevents transport out of the cell and increases reactivity
  24. WHAT IS THE 2ND Reaction of the Glycolytic Pathway?
    • Conversion of glucose-6-phosphate
    • to fructose-6-phosphate.
    • -Conversion of aldose to ketose
    • -Phosphoglucoisomerase
    • -REVERSIBLE
  25. WHAT IS THE 3RD Reaction of the Glycolytic Pathway?
    • Phosphorylation of fructose-6-phosphate
    • -PFK-1
    • - irreversible due to a large decrease in free energy (large DELTA G) commits the molecule to glycolysis.
  26. WHAT IS THE 4TH Reaction of the Glycolytic Pathway?
    • Cleavage of fructose-1,6-bisphosphate.
    • -Aldolase
    • -Triose Phosphate Isomerase
    • -Aldol cleavage giving an aldose and ketose product—get both
  27. WHAT IS THE 5TH Reaction of the Glycolytic Pathway?
    • Interconversion of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate and dihydroxyacetone phosphate
    • -Conversion of ketose to aldose enables all carbons to continue through glycolysis (get to use both haves of glucose’s six carbons)
  28. WHAT IS THE 6TH Reaction of the Glycolytic Pathway?
    FROM THIS POINT ON, EVERYTHING IS DOUBLED. THIS IS STEP 2.
    • Oxidation of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate
    • -Creates high-energy phosphoanhydride bond for ATP formation in the next step and NADH for future use.
    • -Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase
  29. WHAT IS THE 7TH Reaction of the Glycolytic Pathway?
    • Phosphoryl group transfer
    • -Production of ATP-taking a phosphate group off of glycerate-1-3 bisphosphate
    • -Phosphoglycerate Kinase
  30. WHAT IS THE 8TH Reaction of the Glycolytic Pathway?
    • Interconversion of
    • 3-phosphoglycerate and
    • 2-phosphoglycerate (ISOMERATION)
    • -First step in formation of phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP)
    • -Phosphoglycerate Mutase
  31. WHAT IS THE 9TH Reaction of the Glycolytic Pathway?
    • Dehydration of 2-phosphoglycerate
    • - Production of PEP— lyases (Join groups/structures)
    • - Enolase
  32. WHAT IS THE 10TH Reaction of the Glycolytic Pathway?
    • Synthesis of pyruvate
    • -Formation of pyruvate and ATP
    • -Produces a net of 2 ATP, 2 NADH, and
    • 2 pyruvate
    • - Pyruvate Kinase
  33. END PRODUCTS OF THE Glycolytic Pathway
    • 4 ATP, BUT YOU USE 2....FINAL PRODUCT 2 ATP
    • 2 NADH,
    • 2 pyruvate
  34. Under --------- conditions, pyruvate is converted to ------ for use in the citric acid cycle and electron transport chain.
    • aerobic
    • acetyl-CoA
  35. IF NOT O2, PYRUVATE ENDS UP AS WHAT?
    • ETHANOL.
    • CH3CH2 OH
    • FERMENTATION
  36. IF NOT O2, BUT NADH, PYRUVATE ENDS UP AS WHAT?
    • LACTATE ACID VIA HOMOLATIC FERMENTATION.
    • - Regenerates NAD+ so glycolysis can continue..GET SOME ATP.
  37. The rate of the glycolytic pathway is controlled by three
    enzymes (reactions irreversible): 3 NAME THEM AND 2 HORMONES.
    • Hexokinase
    • PFK-1
    • Pyruvate kinase
    • The hormones are glucagon and insulin
  38. PFK-1 and pyruvate kinase ACTIVATE WHEN?
    HIGH AMP CONCENTRATIONS
  39. Glucose-6-phosphate inhibits ---------- and ATP inhibits all 3 enzymes.
    hexokinase
  40. Usually occurs when glycogen is depleted in liver (exercise or fasting or starving)
    Gluconeogenesis
  41. DEFINE Gluconeogenesis
    the formation of new glucose molecules from precursors in the liver
  42. WHAT Requires 4 ATP and 2 GTP (Guanosine triphosphate)?
    Gluconeogenesis
  43. THIS PROCESSES Precursors include: lactate, pyruvate, glycerol, alanine and a-keto acids.
    Gluconeogenesis
  44. T OR F ?
    Gluconeogenesis Reactions ARE THE Reverse of glycolysis except the three irreversible reactions
    TRUE
  45. WHAT IS THIS? WHERE DO YOU SEE IT?
    • ALDOSE.
    • GLYCOLSIS.
    • STEP 2 RXN 6
  46. WORD ENDINGS:
    ATE VS IC
    • ATE: PROTENATED
    • IC: DEPROTENATED
  47. WHERE DOES GLYCOLYSIS OCCUR?
    PANCREASE
  48. Gluconeogenesis OCCURS WHERE?
    LIVER
  49. THE BRAIN AND RBC MAIN ENERGY SOURCE
    GLUCOSE
  50. Three bypass reactions OF Gluconeogenesis.
    1. Synthesis of phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) via the enzymes pyruvate carboxylase and PEP carboxykinase. NEAR BOTTOM

    2. Conversion of fructose-1,6-bisphosphate to fructose-6-phosphate via the enzyme fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase. 3RD FROM TOP.

    3. Formation of glucose from glucose-6-phosphate via the liver and kidney-specific enzyme glucose-6-phosphatase. NEXT TO SECOND STEP.
  51. DEFINE CORI CYCLE
    WHEN LACTATE IS RELEASED FROM SKELETAL MUSCLE
  52. Three of the most important substrates
    for gluconeogenesis are:
    • LACTATE
    • GLYCEROL
    • ALANINE
  53. After transfer to the liver ------- is converted to------- then to --------.
    After transfer to the liver lactate is converted to pyruvate then to glucose
  54. a product of fat metabolism
    • Glycerol
    • BREAKDOWN OF LIPIDS
  55. generated from pyruvate in exercising muscle
    —muscle broken down to provide energy
    ALANINE
  56. ------ is converted to pyruvate then
    glucose in the liver
    Alanine
  57. THE GLUCOSE ALANINE CYCLE IS PART OF WHAT PROCESS?
    GLUCONEOGENESIS
  58. WHAT IS IT?
    THE GLUCOSE ALANINE CYCLE
  59. Pentose Phosphate Pathway...PRODUCTS
    • NO ATP is generated
    • Products are NADPH and ribose-5-phosphate.

    NADPH...LIPID METABOLISM
  60. NAME THE 2 PHASES OF THE PENTOSE PHOSPHATE PATHWAY
    oxidative and nonoxidative
  61. NAME THE 2 PRODUCTS OF THE Pentose
    Phosphate Pathway: Oxidative
    ribulose-5-phosphate and two NADPH

    • NADPH is a reducing agent used in
    • anabolic (BUILD UP) processes-lipid biosynthesis
  62. NAME THE 2 PRODUCTS OF THE PentosePhosphate Pathway: NON-Oxidative
    • Produces important intermediates for nucleotide
    • biosynthesis and glycolysis
    • -Ribose-5-phosphate
    • -Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate
  63. If the cell requires more NADPH than
    ribose molecules, products of the nonoxidative phase can be shuttled into glycolysis.

    WHAT PROCESS?
    Pentose Phosphate Pathway
  64. WHEN YOU LOSE A H+ WHAT IS IT CALLED?
    • OXIDATED.
    • LEO
  65. Most common sugars found in oligosaccharides besides glucose
    • Fructose and mannose are also important sugars for
    • vertebrates
  66. Fructose Can enter the glycolytic pathway in two ways
    • -Through the liver (multi-enzymatic process)
    • -Muscle and adipose tissue (hexokinase)
    • ADIPOSE: body fat or fat depot or just fat is loose connective tissue
  67. Second to glucose in the human diet
    FRUCTOSE
  68. ---------- Synthesis of glycogen, the storage
    form of glucose, occurs ------------
    • Glycogenesis
    • occurs after a meal
  69. IN WHAT PHASE OF THE PENTOSE PHOSPHATE PATHWAY IS RIBOSE MADE AND WHAT IS IT USED FOR?
    Ribose-5-phosphate IS AT THE TOP OF THE PATHWAY. IT CAN GO EITHER WAY, BUT NONOXIDATIVE PHASE Ribose-5-phosphate PRODUCED IS USED FOR BIOSYNTHESIS.
  70. ------ & ---------- are also important sugars for
    vertebrates
    Fructose and mannose
  71. GLYCOGEN IS A BIG POLYMER OF WHAT
    GLUCOSE.
  72. GLYCOGENESIS 3 STEPS
    1. Synthesis of glucose-1-phosphate (G1P) from glucose-6-phosphate by phosphoglucomutase

    2. Synthesis of UDP-glucose from G1P by UDP-glucose phosphorylase



    • §Synthesis of Glycogen from
    • UDP-glucose requires two enzymes:Glycogen synthase (LENGTH) & glucosyl transferase (BRANCHES)
  73. NAME THE 2 GLOCOSDIC LINKAGES INVOLED IN GLYCOGENESIS.
    • ALPHA 1,4 (LENGTH)
    • ALPHA 1,6 (BRANCHES)
    • Branching enzyme Amylo-a(1,4à1,6)-glucosyl transferase creates a(1,6) linkages for branches
  74. Glycogen degradation requires two reactions
    • 1. Removal of glucose from nonreducing ends (glycogen phosphorylase) within four glucose of a branch point (off alpha1-6 side chains) and along the main chain.
    • 2.Hydrolysis and transfer to nonreducing end and breaking a(1,6) glycosidic bonds at branch points by amylo-a(1,6)-glucosidase (debranching enzyme)
  75. WHAT IS THE REDUCING AND NONREDUCING ENDS OF GLYCOGEN CHAIN?
    • THE 1ST CARBON REDUCING
    • 4TH CARBON NON REDUCING.
  76. IN GLYCOGENESIS, WHAT ENZYME IS NEEDED TO CONSTRUCT THE BRANCHES?
    glucosyl transferase
  77. WHAT # OF UNITS IS INVOLEVED WITH GLYCOGEN PHOSPHORYLASE.
  78. WHAT ENZYME IS RESPONSIBLE FOR THIS?
    Amylo-a(1,6)-glucosidase
  79. WHEN BREAKING DOWN GLYCOGEN, WHAT 2 ITEMS ARE NEEDED TO BREAK DOWN THE CHAIN? (NOT BRANCHES)
    Amylo-a(1,6)-glucosidase AND H20 (HYDROLYSIS)
  80. AS A RESULT FROM BREAKING DOWN GLYCOGEN, NAME TWO PLACES PRODUCTS GOTO.
    • GLYCOLYSIS
    • BLOODSTREAM
  81. Regulation of Glycogen Metabolism WHAT DOES IT INVOLVE?
    Regulation involves insulin, glucagon, epinephrine, and allosteric effectors
  82. Glucagon activates --------------
    MADE IN LIVER
    Glucagon activates glycogenolysis
  83. Insulin inhibits ----------- and activates ------------.
    OPPOSITE OF EPINEPHRINE.
    • glycogenolysis
    • glycogenesis
  84. Epinephrine release activates ----------- and inhibits ---------------.
    OPPOSITE OF INSULIN.
    • activates glycogenolysis
    • inhibits glycogenesis

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