Biology Chapter 7, Section 3.

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Biology Chapter 7, Section 3.
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2009-11-19 22:46:14
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Test on Monday, November 23, 2009.
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  1. Cytoplasm & Cytoskeleton
    What is cytoplasm?
    Cytoplasm is the semifluid material inside the plasma membrane.
  2. What does the cytoskeleton do?
    • The cytoskeleton:
    • -give the cell support.
    • -helps anchor the organelles inside the side.
  3. What is the cytoskeleton made up of?

    The cytoskeleton is made up of:

    • Microtubules
    • -long, hollow protein cylinders.
    • -assist in moving substances within the cell.

    • Microfilaments
    • -thin protein threads.
    • -helps give the cell its shape.
    • -allows the entire cell or parts of the cell to move.
  4. Cell Structure
    The nucleus is surrounded by what strcture?
    • The nucleus is surrounded by a membrance called the nuclear envelope..
    • -the nucleus envelope has pores that allow substances to move in & out.
  5. What structure is found inside the nuclear envelope?
    • Inside the nuclear envelope is chromatin.
    • -chromatin are threads of DNA & protein.
  6. What are made inside the nucleus?
    Ribosomes are made inside the nucleus.


  7. Ribosome
    • -where proteins are made.
    • -made up of RNA & protein.
    • -do not have a membrane.
    • -ribosomes can be found free floating in the cytoplasm or attached to the endoplasmic reticulum.
    • -free floating ribosomes produce proteins to be used within the cell.
    • -the ribosomes attached to the endoplasmic reticulum produce proteins to be used by the membrane or sent out of the cell.
  8. Proteins are made where?
    Proteins are made in ribosomes.
  9. Ribosomes are made up of what?
    Ribosomes are made up of RNA & protein.
  10. Do ribosomes have a membrane?
    No, ribosomes do not have a membrane.
  11. What do free floating ribosomes produce?
    Free floating ribosomes produce proteins to be used within the cell.
  12. What do the ribosomes attached to the endoplasmic reticulum produce?
    The ribosomes attached to the endoplasmic reticulum produce proteins to be used by the membrane or sent out of the cell.
  13. What is the endoplasmic reticulum?

    The endoplasmic reticulum is a system of membrance sacs & interconnected channels.
  14. How many types of ER are there?
    There are 2 types of ER.
  15. What are the 2 types of ER?
    • Rough ER
    • -has ribosomes attached to the surface.
    • -where proteins are produced to be exported out of the cell.

    • Smooth ER
    • -doesn't have ribosomes attached.
    • -synthesis of lipids.
  16. What is the golgi apparatus?
    • -the golgi apparatus is a flattened stack of membrane sacs.

    • -it modifies, sorts, & packages proteins.
    • -proteins made at the rough ER may be sent to the golgi.

  17. What is a vacuole?
    • -a membrane sac used to store food, enzymes, wastes, & other materials.

    • -animal cells usually do not contain vacuoles.

  18. What is a lysosome?
    • -a vesicle surrounded by a membrane.
    • -that contains enzymes to breakdown wornout organelles, food particles, viruses, & bacteria.
  19. What are centrioles?
    • -organelles made up of microtubulues.
    • -play a role in cell division.
    • -found in pairs arranged perpendicular to each other.
    • -found in animal cells not plant cells.
  20. Mitochondria
    How many membranes does mitochondria have?

    Mitochondria has 2 membranes.

    • 1. Smooth, outer membrane.
    • 2. Folded, inner membrane - the foldee(s) increases surface area for chemical reactions.
  21. What do mitochondria do?
    Mitochondria provide the cell with energy. (the "powerhouse" of the cell)
  22. Do mitochondria have their own DNA?
    Yes.
  23. What is a cloroplast?
    • -is a type of plastid.
    • -plastids are organelles found in plant cells that contain starches, fats or pigments.
    • -chloroplasts have 2 membranes.
    • -inside the inner membrane are located disk-shaped membrane sacs called thulakoids.
    • -thulakoids are where the green pigmant chlorophyll is located.
    • -chloroplasts capture light energy & convert it to chemical energy in organic compounds.
  24. What are plastids?
    Plastids are organelles found in plant cells that contain starches, fats or pigments.
  25. How many membranes to chloroplasts have?
    Chloroplasts have 2 membranes.
  26. What are thulakoids?
    Thulakoids are where the green pigmant chlorophyll is located.
  27. What is chlorophyll?

    Chlorophyll is a green pigmant located in the thulakoids.

  28. What do chloroplasts do?
    Chloroplasts capture light energy & convert it to chemical energy in organic compounds.
  29. What is the cell wall?
    • -thick rigid structure that surrounds the outside of the cell wall.
    • -it protects the cell & gives it support.
    • -contains cellulose. <-- (carbohydrate) <-- (polysaccaride of glucose)
    • -the cell wall contains pores to allow substances to enter & leave.
    • -cell wall is permeable.
    • -not found in animal cells.
  30. What does the cell wall contain that allows substances to enter & leave?
    The cell wall contains pores.
  31. The cell wall is not permeable. True or False?
    False. The cell wall is permeable.
  32. The cell wall is found in plant cells as well as animal cells. True or False?
    False. The cell wall is only found in plant cells, not animal cells.
  33. The cell wall contains cellulose. True or False?
    True.
  34. Cilia & Flagella
    • -extends out from the surface of the cell.
    • -made up of 9 groups of 2 microtubules arranged around a center pair of microtubules. **
    • -cilia are short hair like projections.
    • -flagela are longer than ee cilia.
    • -typically a cell has numerous cilia, but only one or a few flagela.
    • -cilia & flagla aid in the movement of the cell or substances across the cell.

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