AGRI 101 Final

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kolbyg
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119559
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AGRI 101 Final
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2011-12-03 18:22:25
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final for plant science
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  1. What is the main reason that cereals were the first crops domesticated
    becasue cereals can be stored easy
  2. Gree Revoloution
    • Father is Dr. Norman Borlaug
    • not accessible to small and large farmers
    • plant imporvement and agronomic package were primary reasons for the green revolution
    • ignores certain regions of world
  3. what percent rage of moisture content will be required to avoid seed spol when they storage of seeds
    less than 14%
  4. 3 major cereal crops in the world
    corn wheat and rice
  5. row crops include
    corn cotton and peanuts
  6. Photosynethese is most likely stops by stress due to __________ rather than __________ for the photosynthesis reaction
    • lack of CO2
    • Lack of O2
  7. Chlorophyll in leaf contains _____ & _____
    N & K
  8. Factors of respiration of stored fruits tuber ect
    • low temp
    • low O2
    • low moisture
  9. factor affect photosynthesis
    • CO2 concentration
    • water
    • leaf area
  10. concering temp in leight reaction
    photosynthesis rates decrease after they pass optimum temp
  11. C3 plants
    involved in normal repiration
  12. reason ppl are starving in Soviet Union
    poor ag marketing
  13. Produc by anaerobic respiration
    butter
  14. Respiration factors
    • increasing temp
    • water content
    • sugar availabiltiy
  15. Plants require _____ & ____ for synthesis in photosynthesis reaction
    Fe & Mn
  16. Water & Mineral nutrients in absorption
    • mineral nutrients and water can absorbed through root hair
    • mineral nutients can be absorbed by active uptake
    • active uptake requires energy of ATP from respiraton directly
  17. ___________ developed a means of vaccination animals to m ake them immune to disease
    Louis Pasterur
  18. Exampls of C3, C4, and Cam plants
    • C3 - wheat, barley, & oats
    • C4 - Corn, Sorghum, Sugar Cane
    • Cam- desert plants Cactus & Pinaple
  19. Classificaton system (KPCOFGS)
    • Kingdon
    • Pyllm
    • Class
    • Order
    • Family
    • Geunus
    • Specis
  20. Scentific name of common corn wheat and rice
    • Zea mays = corn
    • Triticum aestivum = wheat
    • Oryza sativa = rice
    • (cap first word, low case 2nd word all I)
  21. Pop. increases 211,000 a day = to what city
    new orleans
  22. Mathus theory popl. will be controled by food production: Pop increases _______ while food production increases
    • Geometrically
    • arithmetically
  23. humans have directed selection in crop breeding to improve _____ & _______
    yeilding & quality
  24. key develop ment in crop produciton of ag
    • plant slection
    • perservation & storage
    • improved cultivation
  25. Photorespiration occurs
    when stomata in plant leaves closed with lack of CO2
  26. moisture contend that can be uses in U.S. and U.K
    30%-40% mosture content with lower O2 level
  27. Cam plant opens stomata at _____
    night
  28. CAM stands for
    Crassulacean Acid Metoblism
  29. general chemical raction of photosynthesis and respiration
    • 6 CO2 + 12 H2O + Light ---> C6H12O6 + 6 O2 + 6 H2O
    • 6 CO2 + 6 H2O + Light ---> C6H12O6 + 6 O2 + heat
  30. Scientific naming system for plants bases on
    Genus & spieces names
  31. six kingdoms
    • protista
    • tungia
    • plantae
    • animila
    • eubactires
    • arochabactira
  32. mineral nutriens will be absorpiton by _____ and water i will be absorbed. Te both mineral nutrients and water wil transported therough _____
    • active uptake
    • xylem
  33. ______ is branch of bio that groups an names organisms bases on studies of their different characteristics
    taxonomy
  34. _____ is broad leaved herbaceous plants in rangland
    forbs
  35. what plant has symbioticnirtogen fixation? list 2 examples
    • legumes
    • clover & beans
  36. what bacteria can produce nirtogen for symbiotic nirtogen fixaton
    rhizobium
  37. Wht ph value can be estimated in acid soil
    4
  38. what can be applies to neutralize acid soil
    agricultural lime
  39. How much N are in 20 lb bag of fertilizer labeled 5-10-10?
    5% of 20

    5-10-10 (5 = N
  40. 3 primary macronutrients
    • N
    • P
    • K
  41. which state has higher ET
    Florida
  42. High Humidity causes low et (true or false)
    True
  43. High vegetation causes low ET (true or false)
    False
  44. eight states that belong ot OGALLA aquifer
    TX, OK, NM, KS, SD , WY, Colorado, Nerbraska
  45. 3 main aquifers in LA
    • Sparta
    • Chicot
    • southeast
  46. factors determine feasibility of irrigation
    • avaliablity of water
    • energy needs
    • crops to be gown
    • initial cost
  47. how much water should be applied of 1 acre with 1 in depth
    27,000 gallons
  48. equation to calculate organin
    &OM dived by 1.7
  49. 3 green house gasses
    • CO2 - carbon dioxide
    • CH4 - methane
    • N20 - nitrous oxide
  50. what part of divot seed and nono cot seed can protect the plumule
    • dicot: hypocotyl
    • monocot: Coleptile
  51. TYPES OF BUDS
  52. basic chemical componets in seeds
    • carbohydrates
    • proteins
    • oils
  53. which plant has lost carbohydrate endosperm
    barley
  54. 2 basic componets of all seeds
    • embryo
    • energy source
    • outer covering
  55. what part of seed can be a future root
    radicle
  56. when do plant change to photomorphogenesis form skotomorphogenesis
    when hypocotyle of seed breaks soil surgface
  57. diffreence bw first true leaves and cotyledons
    cotyledons are the temporary engergy reserves of the immature plant unitl the 1 true leaves appear
  58. define 1 node
    area whenre the cotyledon apper
  59. where does new root of divot come from
    cortex
  60. which imbibes higher perscent of water for germination
    soybean
  61. ______ i produced dro mfoudation seed (register seed ect.)
  62. 3 class weeds are classified by each state in 3 classes
    • probibited noxious = field bind weed, yellow nusedge
    • restricted noxious = dodder & johnsongrass
    • common weeds = pigweed & crabgrass
  63. PLS = ?
    Pure live seed
  64. main factor which cna affect to open or clos stoata in C3 & C4 plants
    tempeture
  65. when will stomata be classed in C3 & C4 plants
    • during night
    • during drought stress
  66. why harvetin as plant is matured is not good time
    • less protein
    • leaves are lost
  67. function of stems
    • transport
    • storage
    • photosynthesis
    • support and display
  68. Cimmyt =
    IRRI =
    USAID =
    • international maize and wheat imporvement center ( mexico)
    • Intration rice research instiute ( philippines
    • U.S land grant colleges through inernational ag programs
  69. Crop -->Orgin --> center of production
    corn
    wheat
    potato
    soybean
    • corn = central america=U.S corn belt
    • wheat = asia=US central plains
    • Potato = S. America = W. Europe
    • Soy bean = Central China = brazil
  70. Fallow =
    leave land idel for a growing season
  71. Cro rotation with legumes =
    cereal --> legume --> cereal
  72. c3 plants
    • exhibit ligh dependent
    • normal respircaton
    • all cool season crops ( wheat, barley potato)
  73. C4 plants
    • no photorespiraton
    • many warm season crops ( sugar cane maize sorghum)
    • better adapte dot high temps, high light, high moister stress
  74. CAM plants
    • no photorespiration stoata open at night closed at day
    • mostly deserte plants cactus pineapple
  75. faceots affectin the rate of respiration
    • temp,
    • water content
    • oxygen & sugar avalability
  76. Micro nutrients plants need
    Fe, Zn, Mn, Cu
  77. diffences bw xylem and phloem
    • xylen just travels up phloem goes up and down
    • phloem transports sugars xylem does not
    • xylem uses passive uptake phloem uses active
    • pheloem uses ATT to transport xylem uses transpiration
  78. summer annual
    • complete life cylcle in one summer
    • peanut, soybean, pig weed
  79. winter annuals
    • start in fall overwinter and finsh cycle nest summer winnter rye
    • winnter wheat
    • winter barley
  80. biennial
    • grwo vegetaviely the first summer overwinter flower andn mature 2 summer
    • sweet clover
    • sugar beet
  81. perennial
    • grow from year to year indefintely
    • bermuda grass, all trees alfafa
  82. warm seaons crops
    cool seasn crops
    • w= begin in later spring grow till fall ( cotton corn blue stems
    • c = grow early spring mature by mid summer
  83. hay
    eniter immature plants cut, dry cured,
  84. silage
    forage perserved in moist condition
  85. haylage
    simmilar to silage by lower moisture
  86. soilage
    green chop ( corn or sorghum cut when green and fed directly
  87. foddler
    whole nearly mature corn or sorghum harvested and dry cured
  88. stover
    dry corn or sorghum residue after the grain has been harvested
  89. straw
    dry small grain residue ager the grain has been harvested
  90. most recmment droages foun in LA
    • annual rye grass
    • cereal rye
    • oats
    • dallisgrass
    • bermudagrass
    • bahigrass
  91. mono cluture=
    rotaion =
    inter ropping =
    sequentiial cropping =
    • MC = same crop year after year
    • R = changing type of crop on scheduled basis
    • IC= growing 2 or more crops at same time on same land
    • SC= growing to mor crop one after the otherl in same year on same land
  92. nirtogen ferilizer can offent be ___________ bc it is _______ in soil
    • on the soil
    • moblie
  93. bout et
    • about 67% of porption returns to the atmospere through et from conterninou U.S.
    • low temp decresses et
    • high winds increase et
    • high ligh increase ET
  94. factot affect ET
    • tem
    • wind
    • humidiy
  95. Shreveport belongs to what aguifer system
    sparta
  96. benefit of cover crops
    decrease erosion and soil ccrusting
  97. When ____ available water depleted irrigation will be required
    60%
  98. waich irrigation methods would expect to ave lower evaporation, lower leavhin and low errosion effect on land preparation
    trickle
  99. wich has more dark color than other horizons
    A horizon
  100. wich of the following is false when soiil properties are compred bw sandy and clay in each situation
    adsoption of nutrients in sady in bigger than clay
  101. orgain matter helps open and lossen for _____ orgainc matter helps "glue" togerther _____
    clay sand
  102. soili water from cannot be used for plant growht bc of= fast movement of water by gravity
    FC
  103. which of follwoing is true concerning orgain matter
    O.M cna be used to control soil stucture
  104. whic of the follwoin is true concerning in soil organisms
    one of them is fungi can convert large particles to stable humus
  105. essential elemets that comr from air and water are
    C, H, O
  106. what method of fertilizer application can be used for corn
    sidedress
  107. what part of orgainc matter cna be broken down faster than others
    lignin
  108. carbon sotage ins ______ is major reserviorq
    deep oceans
  109. wat is the highest percentage in organin matter
    carbon
  110. what percent of orgain carbon is at 34% prgaomc matter in soil
    20%
  111. four basic componets of of all soils and percent of eac
    • soild soil -45%
    • organic matter - 5%
    • water - 25 %
    • air 25%
  112. why soil becomes acidic
    • lenching and high rainfall
    • crop removal
    • denitrotication
  113. for ways to maintain soil orgain matter
    • soil errioson
    • crop rotaion
    • residue into soil
    • add OM to soil
  114. develovped from the nodes whichh then becomes a new stem
    axillary bud
  115. plant has lost ob carbohydrates in endospperm
    barley
  116. nutrients are ___
    charnged forms of ions and most oare hydrated (surrounded by water
  117. nutreints supplied ot root surgaced in 3 ways
    • root interce
    • mass flow
    • diffusion
  118. nutrints which are disolved in the soil sluiont move to ____
    root surfaces

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