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Most clients require ____________ in order to properly perform any type of cardiorespiratory training.
Flexibility training may decrease the occurrences of...
- muscle imbalances
- joint dysfunctions
- overuse injuries
The normal extensibility of all soft tissues that allow the full range of motion of a joint
Capability to be elongated or stretched
The combination of flexibility and the nervous systems ability to control this range of motion efficiently
Dynamic range of motion
The ability of the neuromuscular system to allow agonists, antagonists, and stabilizers to work synergistically to produce, reduce, and dynamically stabilize the entire kinetic chain in all three planes of motion
The ability of the nervous system to properly recruit the correct muscles to produce force (concentrically), reduce force (eccentrically) and dynamically stabilize (isometrically) the body's structure in all three planes of motion.
Flexibility requires extensibility, which requires dynamic range of motion, which requires neuromuscular efficiency. This entire chain is referred to as ___________.
Dynamic functional flexibility
Dynamic functional flexibility is obtained by:
Taking an integrated approach toward flexibility training which achieves optimum soft tissue extensibility in all planes of motion.
Predictable patterns of muscle imbalances that lead to decreased neuromuscular efficiency and tissue overload.
Postural distortion patterns
The process in which the kinetic chain seeks the path of least resistance during functional movement patterns
Widening of the stance and externally rotating the feet to decrease the amount of dorsiflexion at the ankle to perform a squat is an example of ...
when an overhead shoulder press is performed and an excessive lumbar extension is seen this is a result of
tight latissimus dorsi muscles
Caused by abnormal structural and functional efficiency of the kinetic chain (altered length-tension relationships, force couple relationships and arthrokinematics) and are alterations in the lengths of muscles surrounding a given joint
Muscle imbalances can be caused by:
- postural stress
- emotional duress
- repetitive movement
- cumulative trauma
- poor training technique
- lack of core strength
- lack of neuromuscular control (efficiency)
Muscle imbalances result from
- altered reciprocal inhibition
- synergistic dominance
- arthrokinetic dysfunction
- neuromuscular efficiency
The concept of muscle inhibition, caused by a tight agonist, which inhibits its functional (decreases neural drive of) antagonist
Altered reciprocal inhibition
A tight psoas (hip flexor) decreasing the neural drive of the gluteus maximus (hip extensor) is an example of
Altered reciprocal inhibition
The neuromuscular phenomenon that occurs when synergists take over function for a weak or inhibited prime mover
when the psoas are tight it leads to reciprocal inhibition of the gluteus maximus. The result is increased force output of the synergists for hip extension to compensate for the weakened gluteus maximus which include:
- adductor magnus
- erector spinae
Motion of the joints
A biomechanical and neuromuscular dysfunction leading to altered joint motion
Located in the muscles and tendons, these help to determine muscle balance and imbalance. these include the muscle spindles and Golgi tendon organ.
These are the major sensory organ of the muscle and are composed of microscopic fiblers that lie parallel to the muscle fiber. They are sensitive to change in length and rate of length change.
An individual whose knees adduct and internally rotate during an overhead squat would need not to stretch the ___________ but instead stretch the _________.
- underactive gluteus medius (hip abductor and external roator)
- adductor complex which is overactive
Individuals with protracted (rounded) shoulders need not stretch the _____ and the _____ (underactive) but rather stretch the overactive ________ that are pulling them into the rounded position
- rhomboids and middle and lower trapezius
- pectoralis major, pectoralis minor and latissimus dorsi
Located within the musculotendious junction (the point where the muscle and tendon meet) this organ is sensitive to changes in muscular tension and the rate of tension change
The process when neural impulses that sense tension is greater than the impulses that cause muscles to contract providing an inhibitory effect to the muscle spindles
Benefits of flexibility training
- improving muscle imbalances
- increasing joint range of motion and extensibility
- relieving excessive tension of muscles and joint stress
- improving neuromuscular efficiency and function
Consistently repeating the same pattern of motion which may place abnormal stress on the body. Not necessarily related to exercise, ie could be working on a computer.
Cumulative injury cycle
Tissue trauma > inflammation>muscle spasm>adhesions>altered nueromuscular control >muscle imbalance > tissue trauma (cycle)
States that soft tissue models (rebuilds) along the lines of stress with an inelastic collagen matrix that forms in a random fashion
Three phases of flexibility training:
A phase of flexibility designed to improve muscular imbalances and altered joint motion. Uses principle of autogenic inhibition.
This form of flexibility is appropriate at the stabilization level of OPT (phase 1). Includes self-myofascial release (foam roll).
A phase of flexibility designed to improve the extensibility of soft tissue and increase meuromuscular efficiency by using reciprocal inhibition.
This form of flexibility uses self-myofascial release and active-isolated stretching techniques. Appropriate for the Strength Level (phase 2,3,4) of OPT
Example of this flexibility phase includes a supine straight leg raise, using the hip flexor and quads to raise the leg and hold it unsupported while the antagonist hamstring group is stretched
This phase of flexibility is integrated, multiplanar soft tissue extensibility with optimum neuromuscular control through the full range of motion. Movement without compensations.
This phase of flexibility uses self-myofascial release techniques and dynamic flexibility. Appropriate for Power Level (phase 5).
When a person is using self-myofascial release once a tender spot is found indicating hypertonicity what is the procedure?
Sustain pressure for on that spot for a minimum of 20-30 seconds.
When is a good time for self-myofascial release?
Before static stretching for postural distortion patterns or before activity, or during cool down.
The process of passively taking a muscle to the point of tension and holding the stretch for a minimum of 20 seconds.
Static stretching should be used...
to decrease the muscle spindle activity of a tight muscle before and after activity
Examples of static stretching
- gastrocnemius stretch
- kneeling hip flexor stretch
- standing adductor stretch
- pectoral wall stretch
The process of using agonists and synergists to dynamically move the joint into a range of motion
An example is active supine biceps femoris stretch that is performed for 5-10 repetitions of each stretch and are held for 1-2 seconds each.
Active isolated stretching
The active extension of a muscle that uses the force production of a muscle and the body's momentum to take a joint throught the full available range of motion
An example of this technique is performing one set of a prisoner squat for 10 repetions
Example of foam roll and static stretch technique and a strengthening exercise for knees moving inward
- Adductors, TFL band
- Tube walking
Example of a foam roll and static stretch technique and a strengthening exercise for feet turning out
- Gastrocnemius/soleus, biceps femoris (short head)
- single leg balance reach
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