AP 1 (11-9)

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  1. Where are most neurotransmitters synthesized?
    synaptic knobs
  2. Where are most neurotransmitter stored?
    synaptic vesicles
  3. Describe what happens when an action potential reaches the synaptic knob.
    When an action potential reaches the synaptic knob, calcium ions rush inward and, in response, some synaptic vesicles fuse with the membrane and release their contents to the synaptic cleft.
  4. What is a neurotransmiter?
    these are chemical “messenger” molecules that allow neurons to communicate with other neurons (at synapses) or with effector cells (at neuromuscular or neuroglandular junctions).
  5. Can nerve inpulses pass from one cell to the other?
  6. Most neurons release how many neurotransmitters?
  7. What neurotransmitter is excitatory on skeletal muscles, but usually inhibitory on smooth or cardiac muscle?
  8. What neurotransmitter is excitatory usually; but in the basal nuclei of the brain, where it is important in Parkinson’s disease, it is inhibitory?
  9. What is the most common inhibitory NT in spinal cord?
  10. What is the most abundant and inhibitory NT in brain?
    gamma-aminobutyric acid = GABA
  11. What neurotransmitter increases pain sensation?
    Substance P
  12. What neurotransmitter inhibits substance P release, thus reduce pain sensation (produce “runner’s high”)?
    Endorphins & enkephalins
  13. List all of the neurotransmitters.
    • Acetylcholine
    • Monoamines
    • Epinephrine
    • Norepinephrine
    • Dopamine
    • Serotonin
    • Amino acids
    • Glycine
    • Glutamic acid
    • Aspartic acid
    • Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)
    • Peptides
    • Substance P
    • Endorphins
    • Enkephalins
  14. Why must NT be removed at neural synapses?
    to stop nerve impulses in the postsynaptic neuron (if they occur)
  15. What rapidly decomposes the NT after their release?
    Enzymes in synaptic clefts and on postsynaptic membranes
Card Set
AP 1 (11-9)
AP1 chapter 11.
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