BIOTEC E3 C7

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shockwave
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BIOTEC E3 C7
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2011-11-30 22:43:12
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BIOTEC E3 C7
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  1. THE GOAL OF BREEDERS IS WHAT?
    Livestock that grow faster with lean tissue
  2. Scientists can now transfer genes across species, families and even kingdoms by HOW?
    transferring to fertilized eggs or living cells of animals
  3. Genetically engineered livestock will produce important products in blood and milk for health needs including... NAME 3
    human hemoglobin, clotting agents, deficiencies
  4. GENE TRANSFER METHOD OF CHOICE FOR MOST RESEARCHERS.
    WHAT AND WHEN?
    Pronuclear microinjection (1980)
  5. Pronuclear microinjection WHAT TYPE OF MICROSCOPE?
    Differential interference contrast microscope
  6. 3 PROBLEMS WITH GENE TRANSFER METHOD
    • 1. low survival of cells
    • 2. low efficiency of homologous recombination
    • 3. gene targeting in animals
    • 4. gene usually inserts itself into the chromosomes at random
  7. THE STEPS OF GENE TRANSFER.
    7 OF THEM
    • Identification gene of interest
    • Insertion foreign gene into an appropriate vector
    • Microinjection of DNA into the pronucleus of EGG
    • Implantation egg into a surrogate mother
    • Develop to birth
    • Demonstrating stably incorporated to offspring
    • Demonstrating that the gene is expressed and regulated correctly in the host organism
  8. DEFINE Pluripotent
    Capable of differentiating into other cell types
  9. Gene Transfer Methods mediated gene transfer into germ line cells (reproductive)
    NAME 5
    • RETROVIRUS
    • EMBRYONIC STEM CELLS
    • Electroporation,
    • virus infection,
    • DNA precipitation onto cell surface
    • (calcium phosphate for competence)
  10. DEFINE TRANSFECTION
    • INSERTING A GENE TO BE TRANSFERED INTO ES CELLS. BEFORE THEY GET MICROIINJECTED INTO THE BLASTOCYST.
  11. DEFINE KNOCKOUT
    Insertion of DNA into a specific chromosomal location; Often used to inactivate OR KNOCKOUT a gene.
  12. The knockout mice are confirmed for
    the target gene with a DNA test like ------
    PCR
  13. DEFINE HOW TO KNOCKOUT A GENE.
    • 1. START WITH ES CELLS THAT R HETEROZYGOUS FOR "KNOCKOUT" BLACK COAT. (NONFUNCTIONAL)
    • 2. INJECT EMBRYO WITH BOTH NON AND FUNCTIONAL
    • 3. BREAK OFFSPRING WITH HETERO
    • 4. NEXT GEN ALL BLACK
  14. ---------- ------- GENE is used and will activate a toxic
    substance if randomly inserted into the host chromosome (use ganciclovir as drug)
    Thymidine kinase
  15. T OR F?
    Only cells that undergo homologous recombination survive treatment with antibiotic
    and ganciclovir (PCR can be used to screen)
    TRUE
  16. Gene targeting can be a very means of creating animal models for human diseases
    TRUE
  17. -------- human diseases are caused by genetic defects
    5,000
  18. Cytic fibrosis transmembrane regulator (CFTR) is being studied and manufactured WHERE?
    murein mammary glands (milk fat globules)
  19. Cows are given specific traits by
    microinjections of genes into eggs.
    NAME 3
    • Over expression of k-casein gene, or lactose free
    • Increased resistance to pathogens like mastitis
    • Recombinant bovine somatotropin (more milk)
  20. Pigs,Sheep and goats
    NAME MICROINJECTION PRODUCTS
    • Pig...BIOREACTORS
    • Sheep and goats:
    • production of human proteins in milk
    • clotting factor VIII and IX, growth hormone, and interleukins
  21. ENGINEERED BIRD PRODUCTS
    • Made resistant to virus and bacteria
    • Poultry and eggs made with less fat or cholesterol
    • Eggs could be used as factories for producing valuable human proteins
  22. NAME 2 ISSUE WITH BIRDS AND MICROINJECTION.
    • -instability of gene and size restriction of DNA inserts
    • -does not work because of the encasement SHELL
  23. -------- -------- & ---------- --------- that are low cost and eliminates the use of attenuated viral or bacterial pathogens
    • Monoclonal antibodies
    • recombinant vaccines
  24. Foot and mouth disease Extremely contagious,
    ------ virus particles to infect a cow
    10

    • INACTIVED VACCINE, NEED REFRIDG.
    • NO LONG TERM PROTECTION.
    • STRAIN SPECIFIC
  25. Believed to be caused by a prion, which is a poorly understood agent that may be an
    infectious protein
    • MAD COW.
    • Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE)
  26. ------- are very resistant to sterilization and do not evoke a detectable immune response or inflammatory reaction in hosts, and no treatments are available
    PRIONS
  27. Humans can be infected with a new variant called ----------- which causes nervous system tissue to look sponge-like
    AND WHAT DIESASE ?
    • Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (nvCJD)
    • MAD COW
    • Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE)
  28. DEFINE Coccidiosis
    • parasitic protozoans in the genus Eimeria that invade the epithelial cells of the digestive tract and associated glands in cattle, sheep, and poultry.
    • CROWDED CONDITIONS.
    • MANY FEEDS CONTAIN ANTICOCCIDIAL DRUG
    • VACCINE..TRIAL..DESTROY OOCYSTS
  29. DEFINE Trypanosomiasis
    • -One of the most studied parasites; African sleeping sickness.
    • -parasite changes its surface antigen during infection
    • and escapes detection
  30. Trypanosomiasis. Research has focused on three areas:
    • - trypanosome components involved in the process (VACCINES)
    • -Isolating resistance genes IN AFRICAN cattle
    • -Host genes that inhibit parasite division
  31. DEFINE Theileriosis
    East Coast fever..... cattle disease .....ticks

    • infects lymphocytes, which become leukemic and
    • cause lymphosis, killing the cattle.
  32. Use of monoclonal antibodies or sporozoite antigens for vaccination
    WHAT DISEASE?
    Theileriosis
  33. Diluted sperm sample from one bull
    will inseminate _____ - _______ females
    500-1000
  34. Produce identical twins (cattle breeding) two superior animals from one ,Increases the rates of specific
    traits.
    KNOWN AS WHAT?
    EMBRYO TWINNING
  35. First successful animal cloning was of a sheep in ----
    Mice were first cloned in -----
    FROG STUDY--------
    • 1996
    • 1998
    • 1950'S
  36. Nuclear transfer methods:
    Uses ------- ----- FROM ----- -----.
    pluripotent nuclei from embryonic cells
  37. Totipotency
    Ability of a single cell to divide and produce all the differentiated cells in an organism, including extraembryonic tissues, include spores and zygotes. In some organisms, cells can dedifferentiate and regain totipotency.
  38. 1996, Dolly the sheep cloned using
    nucleus from a differentiated cell from ------ tissue.
    mammary
  39. Dolly died in ---- of ------- ------.
    20003 of lung cancer
  40. DOLY'S DNA analysis showed that the ends
    of the chromosomes called ----------- were shorter than normal
    TELOMERS
  41. Controversy remains; it is not clear if Dolly was cloned from a mammary cell or from a stem cell present in
    --------- ------- ------- ------.
    the udder of the donor sheep
  42. IT took ----- attempts to clone
    Dolly, which is very inefficient
    277
  43. Genetic diversity preservation.
    NAME 4
    • -Advances in in vitro fertilization, embryo transfer,
    • oocyte maturation, control of ovarian cycle
    • -captive breeding programs
    • -Cryopreservation of gametes and
    • embryos..... frozen germplasm
    • -DNA fingerprinting can be used for ID of animals and to resolve genetic differences
  44. EMBRYO TRANSFER IS DONE AT WHAT TEMP?
    • Fertilized eggs are retrieved from female and frozen at -196ºC and implanted into surrogate females made
    • pseudo-pregnant
  45. Cincinnati Zoo has had success using Holstein cows to carry rare species..WHAT SPECIES?
    Malaysian ox or Gaur, or the bongo antelope using Elands
  46. Bongos from Mt. Kenya were implanted with bongo embryos from the US...WHY?
    meant to increase genetic diversity in the wild and is closely monitored
  47. In 2003, legislation called the Minor Use
    and Minor Species Animal Health Act was introduced in Congress to DO WHAT?
    improve the access of farmers to animal drugs.

    ISSUE: FDA WILL REGULATE ANIMALS LIKE DRUGS.
  48. Plant patents have been around
    since the ------- (asexually propagated).
    -------- sexually propagated plants
    were made patentable.
    --------US Supreme Court made landmark decision concerning patenting mammals.
    • 1930'S
    • 1970
    • 1980
  49. Non-naturally occurring non-human multicellular organisms were made patentable....WHEN AND WHO?
    1987 by Don Quigg
  50. patent # 4,736,866 was granted for a genetically altered mouse, was used to study human breast cancer was the first mammal patented
    WHO AND WHEN?
    1988 HARVARD
  51. Cloned animals problems.
    NAME 5
    • -die soon after birth
    • -low success efficiency,
    • -large offspring syndrome
    • -physical deformities
    • -Arthritis, heart disease, and respiratory problems are also common.

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