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Why are tropical rainforests found at the equator and deserts found at 30* north and south of the equator?
Circulation of air in a Hadley Cell, water gets heavy and all falls, and moves up and comes back and repeats the process.
Describe the primary factors determining the vegetation that grows in a biome.
Temperature and level of moisture
What is an ecosystem?
The plant, animal, and bacterial life plus the physical and chemical environment in a certain area
What are some examples of changes in plants that we discussed that suggest the environment is warming?
Temperature cues seasonally appropriate tasks such as mating or producing flowers in the spring time, rising temp. interfere with these natural rhythms.
What is endosymbiosis?
The theory that free-living prokaryotic cells engulfed other free-living prokaryotic cells billions of years ago, forming eukaryotic organelles such as mitochondria and chloroplasts
List the groups of organisms found in the class mammalian and describe their distinguishing characteristics.
- 1. Monotremes: egg-laying
- 2. Marsupials: pouched animals
- 3. Eutherians: Placenta
What characteristics are unique to class mammalia?
Distinctive teeth, mammary glands, hair, highly developed brain, extended care for the young
What characteristics are unique to class Aves (birds)?
Only birds have feathers, the embryo is enclosed in a membrane called amnion, they are adapted to fly
How can you recognize and distinguish them from non-venous snakes?
Pupil shape, head shape, color pattern.
How many species of venomous snakes are found in KY?
What organisms are found in the class reptilian?
Turtles and tortoises, lizards and snakes, Crocodiles and alligators.
What characteristics distinguish reptiles from amphibians?
Tough scaly skin, water conserving kidneys, amniote eggs, don’t rely on water for respiration
What characteristics do all these organisms have in common, and why are they tied to water?
Most lay eggs in water, inefficient lungs, and skin serves as respiratory organ
What organisms are found in class Amphibia?
Frogs and toads, salamanders, caecilians
List and briefly describe the Osteichthyes
- 1. Lung Fishes: able to utilize atmospheric oxygen
- 2. Lobe-Finned Fishes: coelacanth- only living species, were believed to be extinct
- 3. Ray-Finned Fishes: includes all common North American fish, Fins supported by flexible rays.
List 2 groups of organisms that are found within the class Chondrichthyes:
- 1. Skates and rays
- 2. Skarks
Describe the two classes of jawed fish and list the difference between them.
- 1. Chondrichthyes: cartilaginous, marine predators, sharks have to be moving in order to breathe. Ex: Sharks, Skates, Rays.
- 2. Osteichthyes: boney, can breathe while sitting still.
- Ex: Bass, bluegill, goldfish.
How do lampreys eat?
They dig circle. They have teeth.
How do hagfish eat, where do they live?
Salt water; eat by tying themselves into knots
What organisms are part of the superclass Agnatha?
What groups of eukaryotes have cell walls?
What role do fungi play in the environment?
What’s the difference between a mold and yeast?
- Molds: many from mycelia—mats of strands called hyphae, hyphae spread throughout the soil, decaying leaf litter and dead organisms, many associate with plant roots, supplying and receiving nutrients.
- Yeast: single-cell fungi, contribute to tasty food and beverages when they ferment sugars, many live symbiotically with plants and animals.
List characteristics and examples of organisms in the 4 groups:
- Arthropods: invertebrates with a segmented body, hard exoskeleton, and jointed appendages; most are insects. Exoskeleton.
- Cnidarians: Ex: Jelly fish. Radial symmetry; aquatic and marine habitat.
- Mollusks: a soft-bodied invertebrate, generally with a hard shell (may be tiny, internal or absent) ex: slug, clam
- Fungi: unicellular or multicellular eukaryotic organism that obtains nutrients by secreting digestive enzymes onto organic matter and absorbing the digested product. EX: yeast, molds, mushrooms
Describe the three types of symmetry & how they are believed to be evolutionarily related:
- 1. No symmetry: (sponges)
- 2. Radical Symmetry: body plan that Is circular with no clear left and right sides
- 3. Bilateral Symmetry: clear left and right sides, which are mirror images of each other.
The majority of animals fall into which category?
Distinguishing features of 4 categories of plants: (came from Common green alga ancestor
- 1. Bryophytes: no seeds, can’t move water through their body, reproduction relies on water, live in damp environments.
- 2. Ferns: no seeds, reproduction relies on water and involves spores.
- 3. Gymnosperms: cell wall of vascular cells support the plant body to great heights, seeds are “naked” typically held in cones, reproduction relies on wind.
- 4. Angiosperm: flowers are important in reproduction, seeds are contained in fruit, reproduction relies on bees and other animals
Are all protists heterotrophic?
What are some examples of protists?
What are protists?
A eukaryote that cannot be classified as a plant, animal, or fungus; usually unicellular.
Distinguishing features of the three domains:
- Eukarya: membrane enclosed nucleus and organelles.
- Archaea: found where temps are hottest and where there is no oxygen
- Bacteria: all are prokaryotic, most possess a cell wall