History 311 Chapter 28

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  1. Government is not the solution to our problem it is the problem
    Ronald Reagan
  2. What were the results of the 1973 Arab oil embargo cause in the us?
    Gas stations ran out of gas. Threatened the "car" culture in america. Citizens lost confidence in the govt with Watergate and the post wwII prosperity ended.
  3. What were the economy problems?
    In the 60's LBJ tried to pay for the Vietnam war and the Great Society without raising taxes. This left a huge debt. End of Viet caused layoffs and the end of govt contracts. Contained 6% of worlds population but consumed 40% of global energy resources.
  4. What happened in the middle east?
    The UN created a homeland for the Jewish people in 1947 by partitioning off Paleston. US supported Isreal while being very dependant on foreign oil. Soviets devoloped strong ties in the middle east. 1973 Egypt and Syria (armed by soviets) attacked Israel to regain terrirtory. Nixon sent aid to Israel which enraged arabs. OPEC and international consortium of oil producing nations that regulates the price and qty of oil exported to the world. OPEC announced an oil embargo on the US which last 5 mnts. 12% oil came from middle east which hurt the US economy badly. Lifted with Nixon convinced Israel to release lands that were obtained during the Yom Kippur war.
  5. 1974 recession
    The economy suffered from both high unemployment and mounting inflation that kept prices rising called stagflation. Trying to solve unemployment worsened inflation. Curtailing inflation by raising interest rates put mortgage and business loans out of reach. Without credit business recovery stalled. Deficit skyrocketed, tax revenue declined. Rising unemployment had roots in the auto industry the long backbone of the economy. GM, Ford, and Chrysler sold 89% of cars in US in 1970 which dropped to 66% 10 yrs later. Gas prices forced to buy smaller more gas eff cars from Japan. 1950 steel produced 1/2 worlds steel, by 1980 14%. The rust belt, decaying industrial cities in the midwest plagued with high unemployment, crumbling roads, bankrupt govts, and high welfare due to closed plants. Factories relocated to the south where non union labor was cheaper. 1960 18% in south had A/C, it rose to 73% in 1980. A Sun Belt of new industrial manufacturing centers from San Diego, Phoenix, and Houston to Atlanta boomed. Shifted those areas to being republican.
  6. What was good about the economy?
    In the 1970's the US economy shifted from manufacturing to service sector and high tech jobs (aerospace, electronics, and computers. 1976 steve Jobs and steve Wozniak first personal computer in garage. First logo was issac newton sitting under a tree with an apple falling. Bill Gates recolutioned the world with IBM to provide operating software for its home computers. 1980 made Gates a billionaire in 2 yrs.
  7. How did the concerns of the silent majority shape concerns at home?
    Nixon instutied wage and price controls in 1971 to curb inflation, the most drastic govt intervention in the economy since ww2. The silent majority are moderate disgruntled southerners and northern white blue collar and subrbanite democrats who had voted for Nixon in 1968 into lifelong republicans. They disliked the Great Society prigrams that primarily aided minorities, but like the New Deal that made govt ensure permanent prosperity. Nix cut budgers targeted social welfare programs but did not touch social security. He gained the Silent Majority support by trying to tame the Supreme Court under the Warren Court. When Warren retired, Warren Burger was appointed and he had no intention of reducing the courts commitment to school integration. Busing began in the north whereby causing protests. Boston was a core center of these protests. Inner city busing programs, the court rulled the suburban school districts did not have to participate in inner city busining programs accellerated the "white fight".
  8. Nixons Watergate
    Won against George McGovern in 1972. Watergate scandal: an episode of presidential criminal wrong doing that create a constitutional crisis that ened Nixons politial career. Democrats retook white house in 1976. 6/17/1972 a night watchman caught 5 burglars breaking into the democratic national committee located in DC complex called watergate. The burglars were trying to fix a broken wire tap in a phone. Nixon won in 1972 by disovowing the notion. Deep Throat (secret informat) leeked to Washington Post Carl Bernstein and Bob Woodward details of the scandal. Deep Throat was FBI's deputy director Mark Felt. Nixon tried to not turn over tapes to the authority in control of the investigation. He tried firing Archibald Cox via his Attorney General. The Attorney general refused and quite, then the Head of the Justice department agreed to fire cox and public outrage for impeachment ensued. 7/1974 the House Judiciary committee issued several articles of impeachment charging him with obstruction of justice, abusing his presidential powers by ordering the CIA, FBI and IRS to harass his political enemies and violating the constitution by refusing to honor congressional subpoenas. 8/6/1974 Nixon released the tape that had Nixon authorizing the cover up plan. 8/8/1974 first US president to resign. VP Gerald Ford became president "the nightmare is over"
  9. How did congress and ford respond to Nixon's past wrongdoings?
    Congress moved to limit the powers of the president and americans were divided about the Vietnam war. Ford was not elected and replaced former disgraced VO agnew by the newly ratified 25th ammendment. He pardoned Nixon. Public confidence over the pardoning was bad unrecoverable. Most believed he had a backroom deal with Nixon. 70 others were convicted for the scandal. Congress ammended the exisitng election laws in 74 to create a Federal Election Commission FEC to monitor federal elections. Limits on campaign contributions and system of public funding for presidential elections. The supreme court struct down a provision to limit a canidate one how much of their own money they could spend. PACS political action committees which represented private interst groups were allowed to donate more $ than individuals. Ford tried to change the Vietnam policy although the media exposed covert Cia coverups. ford issued an executive order prohibiting any govt emp from engaging or conspiring in political assaignation plots. He wanted to retain Henry Kissinger a powerful cabinet member of the Nixon administration and national security advisor. Ford abided by the Salt 1 terms and MAD mutually assured destruction the belief that the guarantee of a devasting nuclear counterattack would deter the US and Dociets from employing nucs. 31 nations signed the 1975 Helsinki Accords and agreement that accepted the current East-West balance of power on the continent. Demise of detente (the policy of using diplomatic, economic, and cultural contacts to improve US relations with China and the Soviets. Reagan blasted him for giving away eastern europe. Donald Rumsfeld advised to pour more $ into the American missile program because the soviets were untrustworthy.
  10. Ford, Carter and Ronald Reagan
    2 terms as CA governor, film actor turned republican, objected to paying 70% of income in taxes, and was concerned about communism in Hollywood. Ford beat out Reagan at the republican national convention but reagan vowed to rise and fight again. Carter challenged on the democrate ticket. carter southerner with a strong baptist beliefs and a slogan that I will never lie to you. Carter wanted to reassemble the New Deal coalition of white southerners, urban blacks, and union members to carry the election. Fewer than 55% voted. Carter pardoned 10000 Vietnam war draft resisters. He worked with congress to establish a Superfund to clean up the nations most polluted areas. He appointed the most women and minorieties to federal office of any previous. Fiscal conservative which clashed with his partys beliefs. He convinced congres to deregulate the trucking, communication and airline industries. He urged the US to consume less oil in 1977 tv address, he called the energy crisis the moral equivalent of war which was a famous essay by 19 century philospher William James. He lifed the price controls on gas which resulted in energy law in 1978 that was a compromise: offered tax incentives for using alternative energy sources such as coal or solar heating. 1979 OPEC raised prices 4 times in 5 mnts and new war between iran and iraq created oil shortages. 1979 1/3 gas stations ran out of gas. Exxon reported 1.9 billion in profits despite. Carter renewed his call for a windfall-profit tax on oil and gas companies to use the profits to fund public transportation, develop alternative energy sources and help the poor pay for heating in his "malaise speech" but the public took it as surmonizing.
  11. Did Carters dealings with the Soviets continue or undo initiatives undertaken by Nixon and Ford?
    Carter resolved to make human rights and the spreading of democracy the centerpieces of his foreign policy. Achievement: forge a new path of diplomatic relations. Making amends for past US wrongs. Treaty to return the Panama Canal 2000. In the 70s the canal did not fit US larger vessels senate ratification in 1978. Cuba was still bad. South American relations went no where. Abondoned Taiwan to the Red Chinese, and negotiated Salt II treaty 1979 (capped missiles and bombers on each side) with soviets. "An inordinate dear of communism has lef us to embrace any dictator who joined in our fear" Carter. Soviets took Angola, somalia, ethiopia, and Afganistan = dentente strengthened the enemy. 1977 Soviets aimed missiles at western europe. Carter secured the NATO authorization to aim missles at Soviets that would reach in 10 mins. Carter Doctrine (a declaration that the US would use armed forces to stop any outside power from making inroads into the Persian Gulf region) Withdrew from the Salt II terms and boycotted the Olympics in Moscow. Carter sent aid to the Muslim fundalmentalist rebels bettling the Soviets in Afgan (who included Osama Bin Laden). The was starting to take the conflicts in the Middle East seriously. He invited Eqyptian leader Anwar El Sadat and Israeli leader Menachem Begin to Camp David. 13 days of ended with Camp David Accords 1978. Isreal gave back Sinai Peninsula inturn Isreal was recognized for the first time as a state by Eqypt. US rewared each state with substantial military aid (continues today). Befriending Eqypt brought them away from the Soviets. 1979 radical islamists overthrew the Shah in Iran and Ayatollah Khomeini became the head of the worlds first radical islamist govt. Called US the great satans. Defining moment for Carter was the Iranian hostage crisis: Iranian revolutionaries held 52 americans captive for 444 days. 5 months later Saddam Hussein invaded Iran and US gave 7.9 billion and a pledge not to interfere in Irans domestic affairs. Khimeini waited until a few mins after Reagan entered office to release the hostiges.
  12. Choices and Consequences ending the Iranian hostage crisis.
    Iranian students storned the US embassy and took american hostages in 1979, had a choice to Sec of State Vance who recommended patient negotiations or National Sec Adv Brzezinski who favord miliarty force to end the crisis. He could wait for Iran to tire, or make a show of strength by bombing Iranian oil refineries and mil bases, special forces. Carter authorized a rescue mission by special forces. Swirling desert sands and a collision between US aircraft doomed the rescue humilliating the US. Khomeini released them of Reagans inaugural day 1-20-1981.
  13. What were the social, cultural and politial consequences of shifting trends in the female workforce.
    The feminists were stigmatized as "a total weirdo, bra burner, man hater, lesbian, sickie. Black women saw it as more of a upper middle class quarrel between white men and women. In early 70s cities stablished shelters for bettered women and rape crisis centers. Passage of Title IX of the 1972 education act prohibiting gender discrimination in education (high school and college sports had to provide scholarships for female students. Congress tried again to pass the Equal Rights Amendment (ERA) in 72 (sex), Phyllis Schlafly: a conservative Illinois lawyer with 6 children lef the anti-ERA campagin. Catholics, southerners, antifeminists, religous fundamentalists and fiscal conservatives pushed the Republican Part to the right. ERA failed by 3 state votes. Back alley abortions killed 2000-3000 anually. Reagan signed a bill in 1967 that let women terminate pregnancies in cases of rape and incest and fetuses with sever physical and mental defects. Roe v. Wade 1973 supreme court case victory,. Criminalized abortion in the 3rd trimester, legalized the first and allowed the state to call the 2nd. Democrats assumed a position of pro-life (believed life began at conception not when the fetus was viable outside the womb)/murder. Pro-choice personal liberty. 20 yrs after, McCorvey (Roe) changed her mind and became a born again christian who joined the anti-abortion campaign. Pro-life secured a ban on federal funding for abortions. Some states req parental notification when minors sought abortions.
  14. Gloria Steinem argued womens liberation would benefit men as well as women.
    argued womens liberation would benefit men as well as women. Liberate men from those inhuman laws as well.
  15. Phyllis Schlafly
    claimed that the "positive woman" embraced her distinctly female role. Differences between men and women. Can not defeat a man in a wrestling match, but she can motivate hime, reward him. A baby fuflills the lives of most women. Women go into teaching and nursing because it is natural to them.
  16. Gay rights.
    APA catergozed it as a as a mental disorder until 1973. Time mag said homosexuality is a "pernicious sicknes" Civil rights inspired some gays to come out of the closet. The true awakening was the Stonewall riot om 6/28/1969 when patrons frequented the Stonewall Inn, a Greenwich Village male gay bar who fought back a NYC police raid. In the morning a huge crowd gathered chanting gay power. Lobbied for antidiscrimination laws marched in Gay Pride parades staging Kiss Ins. Barbara Gittings a lesbian activist said we should have the same tight to express our affection publically as heterosexuals have. 1977 a pop singer Anita Bryant conservative helped to overturn a newly enacted gay rights law in Dade County. Strong laws prevented gays from teaching in public schools. 1981 a mysterious ailment swept through the gay communities in SF and NY. Acquired Immune Syndrome (Aids), a virus, killed 100000 Americans in 1990. Extreme religious conservatives viewed AIDS as Gods retubution against the morally degenerate. Aids patients lost their jobs, turned away from hospital ERs and eviction from apartments. Larry Kramer chatised gay activists who took the position of sexual promiscuity. He later poplurized safe sex in the gay community. Aids Memorial quilt in 1987 by activist Cleve Jones toured the country after its unfurling on the National Mall in DC. They devoloped a more militant tone: ACT UP - the aids coalition to Unleash Power staged its first funeral demonstration in 1987 to demand better medical treatment. Phone zaps that barraged local, state and deferal officals with calls on AIds related issues. NY Times called ACT-UP rude, rash, effective. 1996 a drug cocktail reduced aids related deaths. A relentless safe sex campaign and screening of donated blood lowered the infection rate as well.
  17. Which enviromental visions prevailed int he 70 & 80s?
    April 22, 1970 began the fist Earth Day in NY City. New left: eating organically wo pesticides, supports for laws on lead poisoning in gass and paint. Sierra Club Aububon Societ efforsts of preserving pristine wild life habitats from devolopment and expanding National Park service to safegaurd wildness areas and provide recreational sanutaries. Presidents from Kennedy supported the reforms. New laws on Asbestos removing from schools. Cars required catalytic converters for air pollution by 75%. Ralph Nadar lef to the creation of the Federal Comsumer Product Safety commission. Expensice controls moved factories overseass. NY State admited that the Love Canal contained foul smelling deadly toxins that caused birth defects that lead to congress spending 400 million and 20 yrs to clean up. 1979 partial meltdown of nuclear reator at the Three Mile Island in PA caused panic that lead to 14yr clean up. A "Sagebrush Rebellion" arose in the West among conservatives demanding the govt return federally controlled lands to the states. Reagan loosened federal environmental policies and reduced the EPA's budget.
  18. The rise of the Right.
    In the 1970s the mix of ideas grew even more compliclated when neoconservatives, defectors rom the liberal ranks joined the conservative coalition. Irivng Kristol defined neoconservatives as "liberals whove been muffed by reality". They focused mostly on foreign affairs asking to cast off the Vietnam hangover and stand proud again. Former working class democrats and southern democrates joined. Limited govt appealed to the southerners who were angered by affirmative action, and programs that helped the minorities. Tax increases in the 1970s caused resentment. The well to do had always been against the taxes now the working and middle classes were on the same side. Prop 13 in CA reduced property taxes by 57% that lead to cuts in funding for public schools and universities. The republican anti-tax message was appealing. Rise of the Religious Right. Reagan reached out to them. Fundalmentalism became a nationwide phemomenon in the 1970s because of politics and with evangelical preachers: pat Robertson, Jerry Galwell, Oral Roberts, Jimmy Swaggart, Jim and Tammy Baker, who preached on the tv. 1979 Falwell formed the "moral majority" a well organized network of politically active religious conservatives. Pro life, Pro family and pro morality and pro american. 2 mill new voters, Reagan won against Carter in 1980.
  19. Reagan domestic issues.
    cutting income and corporate taxes, reducing social welfare spending and fighting communism. He sent congress a budget that cut spending for social programs, increased allocations for defense, lowered taxes considerably. Embracing the supply-side-economics, pro business. Trickle down economics. 3/30/1981 John Hinkly who wanted Jodie Foster shot Reagan. Americans rallied to his side when he returned. top tax rate went from 70 to 50% and 28% in 1986. He fired 11000 striking air traffic controllers on 8/1981 and a ban on strikes by federal employees working in critical industries. Mondale lost to Reagan in 1984. He remained pro business driven to free private industry from govt regs. He convinced congress to deregulate the savings and loan industry, banks lost huge amnt of depositors money in speculative investments once freed. 1989 Bush bailed them out instead of failures to not go into a depression. Federal debt trippled. Serious recession in 81-83 the economy improved as inflation lessened and business activity picked up. Dems kanebted the increase in concentration of income in the top 5th of the population rose from 3mill to 12 mill a year. 1980 the avg CEO made 40 times what a worker made. 1980s people went on a buying spree and purchased 88 mill cars, 63 million VCRs, and 62 million microwaves. He was less passionate about education, housing, health care, and the environmen. 100 members of his adminsitration were idicted or forced to resign because of Reagans lax oversight of his subordiates.
  20. Regan on Foreign Policy
    He changed the rules of the Cold War by ridding MAD, the doctrine embraced by American and Soviet policymakers since the 50s because he did not want to be defenseless against the enemy. Reagan announced in 1983 the Stategic Defense Initative (SDI) proposed a missile shield from space using lasers to destroy incoming missiles. He publically said he it rivaled the ABM treaty, privately he hoped the Soviets would go bankrupt trying to produce the technology. SDI failed. Soviets in 1980s spent 15-20% of defense. US 6.5% on defense. Soviets spent ours in lines at the supermarkets and discontent with Communism rule. He looked for ways to destabilize communist resigmes in the Caribbean and Central America. He hoped to unseat Sandinistas, lefist rebels who had overthrown the US supported dictator Anastasio Somoza in 79. He approved a covert CIA assistance to the contas, counterrevolutionary forces in Nicaragua that opposed Sandinistas. Congress prohibited the CIA and Dep of Def from funding any effort. NSC convinced Reagan these restrictions did not apply and solicited millions from the Saudi Arabian govt and other private donors for the contras. Congress then prohibted using any non US funds to unseat the Sandinistas. 10/1983 Reagan ordered troops to invade Grenada (Caribbean) to save American medical students, the real mission was to remove a govt actively seeking Cuban and Soviet miliary aid. He used his powers as commander in chief. Islamist militant suicide bombers plowed into a US barraks 2 days before. Over then next few monst Islamist terroists groups angry over the US support for Israel and Iraq increased their assaults by taking hostiages in Lebonon. The Iran-Contra scandal, Reagan admin sold arms to Iran to secure the hostages release then illegally used the proceeds to support the anti=communist contras in Nicaragua. John Poindexter and North in 1985 had a covert plan. When a plane carrying arms to the contras crashed in 86 their illegal action was exposed. Both were convicted but won appeals to be freed. Both claimed Reagan new nothing about the thier illegal diversion of funds to the contras. Reagans approval dropped below 50%. Mikhail Gorbachev embraced reform to save the Soviet Union. He pumped long needed funds into the economy and moved to reduce tensions with the US. Reagan and Gorb meat in DC on 12/1987 tooke a step in signing the Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces Treaty that approved destruction of intermediate range missiles in Europe. Soviets reduced forces in Afgan in 88 and communist regimes around the world.
  21. Regans Legacy
    Appointed Sandra Day O'Conner as the first female Supreme court justice. returned prayer to school, ending affirmative action. Government is not the solution to the problem; government is the problem. thought the New Deal and the Great Society were the same as when he entered. Reagan succeeded in reviving national confidence at a time when there was a great need for inspiration. This was his great contribution as a president report Lou Cannon.
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History 311 Chapter 28
History 311 Chapter 28
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