BTNY301 Exam 4

Card Set Information

Author:
craigalangray
ID:
119647
Filename:
BTNY301 Exam 4
Updated:
2011-11-29 18:00:11
Tags:
Botany 301 Exam
Folders:

Description:
Parasitic Plants, Postharvest Diseases, Mycotoxins, Disease Mgmt, Biotechnology
Show Answers:

Home > Flashcards > Print Preview

The flashcards below were created by user craigalangray on FreezingBlue Flashcards. What would you like to do?


  1. Hemiparasites
    • Parasites of the xylem to use water and minerals from host
    • Have photosynthetic leaves to make food
  2. Holoparasites
    • Parasites of both xylem and phloem
    • Usually have small, yellowish scaly leaves incapable of photosynthesis
  3. Broomrapes
    name
    hemi or holo
    infect
    • Orobanche spp.
    • Holoparasitic
    • Infect Roots
  4. Dodders
    name
    hemi or holo
    infect
    and
    • Cuscuta spp.
    • Holoparasitic
    • Infects Stems
    • AND may serve as a vector for some plant viruses and phytoplasmas
  5. Witchweeds
    name
    hemi or holo
    infect
    • Striga spp.
    • Hemiparasitic
    • Infects Roots
  6. Mistletoes
    name for LEAFY and DWARF
    hemi or holo
    infect
    • Phoradendron (leafy) spp. & Arceuthobium (dearf) spp.
    • Hemiparasitic
    • Infects Stems
  7. Leafy Mistletoes
    spread primarily
    by birds
  8. Dwarf Mistletoe aka
    "Witches brooms"
  9. 6 organisms that cause plant diseases
    • Bacteria
    • Stramenopiles (OOmycetes)
    • Fungi (Asco, Deutero, Basidio)
    • Viruses
    • Nematodes
    • Parasitic Plants
  10. Post Harvest Diseases (4)
    • Attack fruit, seed at or near maturity or after harvest
    • Infection often occurs during harvest, packing or shipping
    • 15-25% Losses worldwide
    • Mostly caused by bacteria & fungi
  11. Green Mold of Grapefruit
    name
    Penicillium digitatum
  12. Blue Mold of Grapefruit
    name
    P. italicum
  13. Blue Mold
    name
    P. expansum
  14. Gray Mold
    caused by...
    is a...
    • Botrytis
    • Deuteromycete
  15. Gray Mold of Strawberry, Raspbery
    Bunch Rot of Grapes
    name
    B. cinerea
  16. General Post Harvest Management (7)
    • Avoid Bruising
    • Mulch to avoid ground contact
    • Packing House Sanitation
    • Washing AND Drying
    • Cold Storage
    • Chlorination
    • Fungicides
  17. Crown Rot of Banana
    name
    Colletotrichum musae
  18. Anthracnose of Mango & Avocado name
    Colletotrichum gloeosporioides
  19. Bacterial Soft Rot name
    Erwinia carotovora
  20. Brown Rot of Peaches name
    Monilinia fruticola
  21. Bacterial Soft Rot of Aloe name
    Pectobacterium chrysanthemi
  22. Sooty Mold (5)
    is..
    grows..
    is..
    genus..
    control by...
    • Saprophytic fungal growth
    • Growns on insect honey dew
    • Non path but can cause damage
    • Genus Capnodium
    • Control insects, wash leaves
  23. Mycotoxins are
    compounds produced by fungi while infecting plants that are toxic to humans and animals
  24. 4 Mycotoxins
    • Aflatoxin
    • Vomitoxin
    • Fumonisins
    • Ergot alkaloid toxins
  25. Aflatoxin
    caused by...
    common on...
    causes...
    • Aspergillus flavus
    • cereals
    • 'Moldy Corn Disease' intestinal bleading, abortion, death
  26. Vomitoxin
    caused by...
    causes...
    • Deoxynivalenol
    • Giberella Ear Rot of Corn, Head Blight of Wheat
    • Animals vomit and refuse to eat
  27. Fumonisins
    caused by
    causes
    • Fusarium moniliforme
    • Fusarium Ear Rot of Corn
    • Blind Staggers, pulmonary edema, cancer, death
  28. Ergot alkaloid toxins
    caused by
    causes
    • Claviceps purpurea
    • Ergot of Rye, St Anthony's Fire, Gangrene
  29. Aflatoxin allowed by FDA in
    Milk...
    Human food and Dairy Cows...
    Breeding Cattle
    Poultry...
    • .5 ppb
    • 20 ppb
    • 100 ppb
    • 100 ppb
  30. Vomitoxin allowed by FDA in...
    Human food...
    Swine...
    Cattle & Chicken...
    • 1 ppm
    • 5 ppm
    • 10 ppm
  31. The Disease Rate Equation
    X=X0rt
  32. X=X0rt
    X =
    X0 =
    r =
    t =
    • Amount of disease
    • Initial Inoculum
    • Rate of Disease Increase
    • Time
  33. < X0 =
    < r =
    < t =
    • increase in lag phase of desease curve
    • reduces slope
    • reduces disease by decreasing exposure
  34. The Disease Cycle (6)
    • Production of Inoculum
    • Dissemination of Inoculum
    • Inoculation of Plant and Prepenetration
    • Penetration and Ingress
    • Infection & Colonization
    • Overseasoning & Survival
  35. Principals of Disease Management (6)
    • Exclusion
    • Eradication
    • Protection
    • Resistance
    • Therapy
    • Avoidance
  36. Biotechnlogy def
    The development of genetically modified organisms through the use of modern tech and processes, including genetic engineering.
  37. Genetic Engineering def
    The transfer of specific genes between organisms using enzymes and lab techniques rather than biological hybridization.
  38. First to have functional DNA from different species in the same organism
    Stanley Cohen & Herbert Boyer
  39. Genetic Transformation def
    The uptake and maintenance of exogenous DNA
  40. Transgene def
    A foreign gene that has been moved to a new organism
  41. Transgenic organism def
    An organism that contains foreign DNA
  42. Vector def
    A piece of nucleic acid that contains the foreign DNA and will be taken up by the target host
  43. Recombinant DNA def
    Pieces of DNA from two different organisms combinded into one
  44. Plasmid def
    An extrachromosomal piece of DNA that is capable of replication
  45. DNA Transcription =
    mRNA
  46. mRNA Translation =
    Protein
  47. DNA 3 bases =
    codon
  48. GMO Concerns 3
    • Safety
    • Ecological
    • Economic

What would you like to do?

Home > Flashcards > Print Preview