Chapter 7 Review

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  1. the two divisions of the skeleton are the __ skeleton and the __ skeleton.
    • axial
    • appendicular
  2. The __ bone supports the tongue.
  3. The __ at the inferior end of the sacrum is composed of several fused vertebrae.
  4. The ribs are attached to the __ posteriorly and to the __ anteriorly.
    • vertebral column
    • sternum
  5. The thoracic cage is composed of __ pairs of ribs.
  6. The scapulae and clavicles together form the __.
    pectoral girdle
  7. The __, __, and __ articulate to form the elbow joint.
    • humerus
    • radius
    • ulna
  8. The wrist is compsed of eight bones called __.
  9. The coxal bones are attached posteriorly to the __ and are attached anteriorly to __.
    • sacrum
    • each other
  10. The pelvic girdle (__), sacrum and coccyx together form the __.
    • coxal bones
    • pelvis
  11. The __ covers the anterior surface of the knee.
  12. the bones that articulate with the distal ends of the tibia and fibula are __.
  13. All finger and toe bones are called __.
  14. Expanded ends of bones that form joints with adjacent bones are called __.
  15. The shaft of a long bone is the __.
  16. A tough layer of vascular connective tissue, called the __, covers the bone (except for the __) and is continuous with tendons and ligaments.
    • periosteum
    • articular cartilage
  17. __ makes up the walls of the diaphysis; the epiphyses are filled with __ to reduce the weight of the skeleton.
    • compact bone
    • spongy bone
  18. The diaphysis contains a hollow __ that is lined with __ and filled with __.
    • medullary cavity
    • endosteum
    • marrow
  19. Mature bone cells, called __, are located within lacunae thta lie in concentric circles.
  20. __ contain blood vessels and nerve fibers and extend longitudinally through bone.
    osteonic canals
  21. Bone cells pass nutrients and gases in the matrix through __.
  22. Osteonic canals are interconnected by transverse __.
    perforating canals
  23. The flat boones of the skull form as __ that develop from layers of connective tissue; wherease, most bones of the skeleton are __ that develop from a hyaline cartilage model.
    • intramembranous bones
    • endochondral bones
  24. A band of hyaline cartilage called the __ forms between the two ossification centers and is responsible for the lengthening of bones.
    epiphyseal plate
  25. __ break down the calcified matrix of bone and are replaced with bone building cells called __ that deposit bone in place of calcified cartilage.
    • osteoclasts
    • osteoblasts
  26. True or false:
    Bony processes or grooves indicate places of attachment for muscles.
  27. TRue or False:
    The intercellular material in spongy bone is arranged in concentric circles called osteons.
    false: compact bone not spongy
  28. True or False:
    Each bone is made up of several types of tissues and is therefore considered an organ.
  29. The skull is composed of the __ and __.
    cranium and facial bones
  30. Near the distal end of the vertebral column, several vertebrae fuse to form the __. At the end of this is the __.
    • sacrum
    • coccyx
  31. ´╗┐The thoracic cage protects the organs of the thoracic cavity and the uppper abdominal cavity. It is composed of __ pairs of ribs, which articulate posteriorly to the __. The thoracic cage also includes the __ to which most of the ribs attach anteriorly.
    • 12
    • thoracic vertebrae
    • sternum
  32. At the distal end of the radius and ulna is the __, which includes __ bones and __ and __.
    • hand
    • eight carpal
    • 5 metacarpals
    • 14 bones of the fingers called phalanges
  33. Two __ form the pelvic girdle and are attached to __ anteriorly and to the __ posteriorly.
    • coxal bones
    • each other
    • sacrum
  34. At the distal ends of the tibia and fibula is the __, which includes __, __ and __.
    • foot
    • seven tarsals
    • five metatarsals
    • 14 bones called phalanges
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Chapter 7 Review
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