Card Set Information

2011-11-29 21:04:46

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  1. What is a burn injury?
    • Usually results from energy transfer from a heat source to the body that results in both local and systemic responses
    • Can result from thermal, electrical, or radioactive agents
  2. Major goals for burns
    • Prevention
    • Life-saving measures for severely burned pt
    • Prevention of disability/disfigurement through early, individualized treatment
    • Rehabilitation through reconstructive surgery and rehabilitative programs
  3. Classification of burns
    • Amount and depth of tissue damage
    • Superficial-thickness burns
    • Partial thickness burns
    • Superficial partial-thickness
    • Deep partial-thickness
    • Full-thickness
    • Deep full-thickness burns
  4. Superficial-thickness burn
    • Least damage-only epidermis is injured
    • Prolonged exposure to low intensity heat (sun) or short exposure to high-intensity heat
    • Redness with mild edema
    • Pain and increased sensitivity to heat
    • Desquamation (peeling of dead skin) occurs in 2-3 days
    • Heals rapidly in 3-5 days
  5. Partial thickness burns
    • Superficial partial-thickness:
    • Damage to upper third of dermis
    • Red, moist, and blanchable when pressure is applied
    • May blister (large blisters are usually opened to promote healing)
    • Nerve endings exposed, cause intense pain
    • Burns heal in 10-21 days, without scar, may have pigment changes
    • Deep partial-thickness:
    • Extend deeper into the skin dermis
    • Red and dry with white areas in deeper parts
    • Moderate edema
    • Nerve endings have been destroyed, pain may be less
    • Generally heal in 3-6 wks, scarring results and surgical intervention with skin graft may reduce healing time
    • Full-thickness burns:
    • Destruction of entire epidermis and dermis, leaving no residual epidermal cells to repopulate
    • Hard, dry, leathery eschar (needs to be removed before healing can occur)
    • Waxy white, deep red, yellow, brown, or black
    • Sensation reduced or absent due to nerve ending destruction
    • Healing time depends on establishing a good blood supply, could take weeks or months
  6. Deep full-thickness burns
    • Extend into fascia and tissues
    • Damaged muscle, bone, and tendons are left exposed
    • Black, depressed, and sensation is completely absent
    • Require early excision and grafting (decreases pain and length of recovery)
    • Amputation may be necessary
  7. Patho of burn injury
    • Tissue destruction can lead to:
    • Fluid/protein losses
    • Sepsis
    • Multiple system disturbances
    • Metabolic
    • Endocrine
    • Respiratory
    • Cardiac
    • Hematologic
    • Immune
    • Extent of local and systemic disruption depends on:
    • Age
    • General health status
    • Extent of injury
    • Depth of injury
    • Area of body injured