AP Gov ch 9 Nominations & Campaigns

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AP Gov ch 9 Nominations & Campaigns
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2011-11-29 22:42:53
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ap gov Nominations & Campaigns
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  1. Nomination & party endorsement process
    • A. Announcement
    • B. Primaries
    • (1).Are our campaigns too long?
    • (2).Are our campaigns too expensive?
    • (3).Do we make getting elected too hard?
  2. C. National party
    • convention (NPC)– the supreme power w/in each of the parties. It meets
    • every 4 years to nominate the
    • party’s pres and vp candidates and write their platform.
    • (1).Delegates
    • – appointed by party leadership and vote based on pop vote of that state.
    • (2).Superdelegates – nat’l party leaders
    • who automatically get a delegate slot at the dem NPC based on their position. Ppl chosen by the
    • party.
    • D. Caucus – a meeting of all state party leaders to select delegates
    • to the nat’l party concention
    • (1).Old
    • version of a big circle
    • a.Party bosses told you how to vote OR
    • b. Frat Party with a popularity contest
    • vote at the end
    • (2).
    • New version of a pyramid
    • a.Small groups meet in neighborhoods
    • b.Select a person to vote for them at
    • local / county level
    • c. Select a person to vote for them at
    • state level
  3. When are most of the delegates to the dem and repub nat’l conventions selected?
    • Most of the
    • delegates to the dem and repub nat’l conventions are selected in presidential
    • primaries (one person one vote, designed
    • to limit power of party bosses).
  4. McGovern-Fraser Commission
    • Primaries increase after 1968 Democratic Convention riots where many
    • felt unrepresented
    • A. Now
    • 80% of seats voted on
    • B. Change: McGovern-Fraser Commission –
    • mandated that the dem party conventions be +representative.
    • (1). One person one vote, established open
    • procedures/affirm action guidelines for delegate selections.
    • (2). result:
    • many states held primary elections to select convention delegates, party
    • conventions +rep
    • C. Primaries
    • start frontloading to get media attention (Iowa, New Hampshire)
    • (1). Beginning
    • of race to start in January
    • (2). Does this over represent the importance
    • of some states?
    • (3). Problem w/ frontloading: ppl lose
    • interest b/c they already know who the candidate will be
  5. Problems
    with the current system of party nomination:
    • (1). Disproportionate
    • attention goes to early caucuses/primaries.
    • (2). Prominent
    • politicians find it overly time consuming/ hard to fit in their schedules to
    • run.
    • (3). Money
    • plays too big of a role in the caucuses/primaries.
    • (4). Participation
    • by voters is low and unrepresentative
    • (5). The
    • system gives too much power to the media, is media the new party boss?
  6. A. National Primary
    idea
    (what if we just had one nat’l primary)

    (1). W.Wilson first proposed it
    in 1913
    • Positives:
    • a. Direct & simple
    • b. MUCH shorter campaign season (likeEurope)
    • c. Equal impact for all states
    • d. Equal media attention
    • e. Increased discussion of the issues
    • f. can’t base it on money, how others vote,ect
    • g. Ron Paul would benefit b/c he’s more libertarian than the other tea party candidates
    • Negatives:
    • a. Too many candidates - no one would
    • get over 50% of the vote
    • b. Run off required after every
    • election in each state
    • requiring top 2 to go again
    • - different top 2 in some states =confusion
    • c. +voting than current system w/ at least 3 votes
    • (shorter season, +elections) 1.Primary
    • vote
    • 2.Run off vote
    • 3.General election
    • d. Big money would own the airwaves during the shortened season
  7. A. National Primary
    idea
    (what if we just had one nat’l primary)

    (1). W.Wilson first proposed it
    in 1913
    • Positives:
    • Negatives:
    • a. Direct & simple
    • b. MUCH shorter campaign season
    • (like Europe)
    • c. Equal impact for all states
    • d. Equal media attention
    • e. Increased discussion of the issues
    • f. can’t base it on money, how others
    • vote, ect
    • g. Ron Paul
    • would benefit b/c he’s more libertarian than the other tea party candidates
    • a. Too many candidates - no one would
    • get over 50% of the vote
    • b. Run off required after every
    • election in each state
    • →requiring top 2 to go again
    • - different top 2 in some states =
    • confusion
    • c. +voting than current system w/ at least 3 votes
    • (shorter season, +elections) 1.Primary
    • vote
    • 2.Run
    • off vote
    • 3.General
    • election
    • d. Big
    • money would own the airwaves during the shortened season
  8. B. Regional Primary idea
    Positives:

    • a. Lets candidates travel
    • b. Quicker primary season
    • c. Chance to refine views &
    • learn issues (still allows horserace phenomenon)

    • Negatives:
    • a. 1st region gets 1st influence (California 1st or
    • last to go?) (switch order every election?)
    • b. How to keep regions from moving theirs forward like
    • current system
  9. Regional Primary idea
    • Positives:
    • a. Lets candidates travel
    • b. Quicker primary season
    • c. Chance
    • to refine views & learn issues (still allows horserace phenomenon)
    • Negatives:
    • a. 1st region gets 1st influence
    • (California 1st or last to go?) (switch order every election?)
    • b. How to keep regions from moving theirs forward like current system
  10. Four Stage State vote
    • (1). Least
    • populated states first - how to define least?
    • (2). Most
    • populated states last - how to define most?
    • middle ground?
    • (3). All
    • sizes play a fair role - do they? (unfair, does this give small states an
    • advantage?)
    • (4). Makes
    • it harder (travel wise) for the candidates
    • (4). Campaign over entire country each time
    • a. Why under the current system may
    • they avoid some states? (Electoral
    • College worksheet)
    • b. Money, time, and strategy spread out
  11. Basic timeline of conventions
    • 8. Bump in approval ratings possible,
    • which is the goal of the convention now?
    • (1). Big party, best foot forward
    • (2). Energize your base
    • (3). Basic timeline of
    • conventions
    • c. Day 1: Keynote Speech (show off upcoming leader -
    • Obama, 2004)
    • d. Day 2: Party Platform (R unity v. D fracturing)
    • e. Day 3: Nominating Presidential Candidate & final
    • speeches
  12. Role of high tech media:
    • 10. Increasing role of the internet
    • (1). Getting
    • message out
    • (2). Fund
    • raising - Ron Paul led the way
    • (3). Targeted
    • ads
    • (4). Planned media events
    • 11. Direct mail – getting more efficient
    • (1). Targeted
    • now thanks to computer data
    • (2). 2% return = profit / success
  13. 12. Advertising time v. free air time
    • (1). Advertising
    • Time: expensive
    • (2). Free
    • air time: scandals = free air time, good/bad?
  14. Many involved in a campaign
    • (1). Manager: campaign head
    • (2). Staff: to do little/random things the
    • campaigns require, often young ppl are recruited
    • (3). Fund Raiser: going after money people
    • (4). Pollster: someone telling how the polls
    • are running
    • (5). Legal Counsel: lawyer
    • (6). Media Consultant: how to improve image,
    • catch phrases, wording, ect
    • (7). Policy Advisors and research staff: to
    • help master complex issues reporters will ask about
    • (8). Press Secretary: manages the press, ect
    • (9). Web
    • Designer, etc.
  15. 1974 Federal Election Campaign Act
    • (1). Creates Federal Election Commission
    • (FEC)
    • (2). Public financing for Presidential
    • primaries and general elections
    • (3). Limits spending (caps) (last election
    • they each raised 1bil instead of being limited by the cap)
    • (4). Requires full disclosure of donors,
    • attempts to limit contributers
    • (5). Allows $3 income tax donation (less
    • than 10% donate) in order to
    • (6). 1976
    • gives matching funds
    • a. Up to $250 per individual, Return
    • $251 since it = $251, Convert $250 into $500 w/ matching!
    • b. $2,300 per individual max directly
    • to candidate
    • c. $85 million cap
  16. B. McCain-Feingold
    Act of 2002
    • (1). Attempt
    • to stop the "buying" of elections by the rich
    • (2). So does what… Put limits on individual
    • and business donations
    • (3). Attempt to control "soft
    • money"
    • (4). Soft
    • v. Hard money Sc has been trying to rein in,
    • BIJT preferred position doc, in any conflict, 1st
    • a always wins (freedom of symbolic speech)
    • a. Soft money: 1.
    • Given to party
    • 2.
    • May be used for anything
    • 3.
    • Amount unlimited
    • b. Hard money: 1. Given directly to candidate
    • 2. Uses limited, Amount capped
  17. (1).. Buckley v. Valeo 1976
    • a. Protects
    • soft money donations, Caps on
    • individuals to party unconstitutional
    • c. 1st A. symbolic speech
    • 2010 (protects soft money) rules
    • against soft money restrictions on corporations
    • a. Allows corporations to flood
    • elections with unlimited money
    • b. Greatly hurts McCain-Feingold
    • c. Preferred Position doctrine of 1st
    • A. freedom of symbolic speech (money
    • given where desired in whatever amount)
  18. 1979 Amendments
    • (1). Allow
    • soft money to parties
    • (2). Closed
    • by McCain-Feingold in 2002
    • a. Banned
    • soft $
    • b. Limited corporation giving in last
    • 60 days, Limited union giving in last 60
    • days
    • (3). Declared unconstitutional in 2007
  19. ways money still expands...
    • E. Money expands with rise of 527 groups (section of tax
    • law)
    • (1). Groups
    • independent of the parties
    • (2). Allowed
    • unlimited money use on political campaign ads
    • (3). Limitations:
    • CAN’T use “Vote for” or “Vote against”, but CAN say “vote for a better
    • candidate”
    • (4). Can’t
    • directly advocate for/against a candidate, but can get around it :P
    • (4). Swift Boat Veterans for Truth 2000
    • election
    • F. Money expands with increasing
    • number of Political Action Committees (PACs)
    • G.. Obama
    • passed on this 2008; W. Bush passed on federal matching funds in 2004
    • (1). Raised more without spending cap limit
    • (2). Increasing cost of elections makes
    • spending caps a liability
    • (3). 2008 election over1 billion spent on an
    • office that pays $400,000
  20. 19. Campaign influence on voters is
    decreasing

    A. Rise of selective participation
    (only pay attention to that with which you agree)

    B. Party identification stronger than
    one individual campaign

    C. Incumbent
    advantage = increased donated money for campaign
    • C. Incumbent advantage = increased
    • donated money for campaign
    • (1). Name
    • recognition (who are you spending your time thinking about, attention)
    • (2). Franking
    • privilege (you inform your ppl ab yourself through mailings at taxpayer’s
    • expense)
    • (3). Over
    • the last 60 years, incumbents have been elected 90% of the time
    • (4). Fewer
    • than 20% of house seats are uncontested
    • (3). Services
    • provided as member of Congress
    • (4). Logical to “bet on the winning horse”

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