ESRM 100

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rjfisher
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119743
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ESRM 100
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2011-11-30 22:39:30
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ESRM Final Exam
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  1. One task of enviromental economics is to evaluate the dollar value of _______________ environmental factors
    intangible
  2. Rise in ocean water pushed ashore by a hurricane
    "Storm Surge"
  3. Weathered insoluble ore deposits occurring at ground level is an ___________
    iron oxide cap
  4. Dominant approach for managing waste today
    Integrated Waster Management
  5. What protects us from harmful ultraviolet rays?
    The ozone layer
  6. One proposal of the Wildlands project is to___________
    remove towns and cities
  7. ____ minerals that solidify early may slowly sink or settle towards the bottom of the cooling magma, whereas ______ minerals that crystalize later are left at the top
    Heavier, Lighter
  8. Using records of the location and frequency of past events is how scientists:
    predict where hazordous events will occur in the future
  9. NOT correct about Water Scarcity
    Water scarcity is primarily a problem for underdeveloped countries
  10. A benefit of burning garbage is ______, but _____ is a problem
    reduces volumes, creates air pollution
  11. A "Garden City" is a city surrounded by a
    Green Belt
  12. Southeastern US is likely to be affected by ______
    Hurricanes
  13. Congress made Yosemite a national park in ________
    1864
  14. Zero Waste movement
    Hope to eliminate waste by transferring it into resources
  15. Moral persuasion,social
    pressure, laws and regulations, taxes that affect the price of goods, government research
    and education are examples of what ___________
    Policy instruments
  16. Non-positive externanlity caused by natural disasters
    Competitive Exclusion Principle
  17. Not a method of direct pollution control
    government subsidized cleanup of pollution
  18. Smog is a mixture of
    Smoke and Fog
  19. Natural mineral crust depositation
    Groundwater cooled, coated with minerals from mining
  20. Storm King Mountain illustrates advatage of _____ over litigation
    mediation
  21. Hydrogen sulfide smells like ____
    rotten eggs
  22. DOES not describe natural hazards:
    Risks from hazards cannot be estimated
  23. Ozone is an example of a _______ pollutant
    secondary
  24. Frederick Law Olmstead designed _________
    Central Park
  25. Rapid consumption would lead to a _________ graph
    steep narrow
  26. Placer deposits are found in ______ crevices or fractures at the ______ of pools
    open, bottom
  27. Hazards that used to produce disasters now produce catastrophes because:
    Increase in human population and city size
  28. Compost turns _____ material into a _____ that enriches the ______
    organic, mulch, soil
  29. Salmon lay their egss in ______ water, and spend their lives in ______.
    Fresh, the ocean
  30. The Montreal Protocol is an example of ________
    international environmental law
  31. If a natural resource is destroyed during an industrial process, and the value of that natural resource is not reflected in the price of the product, then the value of that resource is considered to be_________
    an externality
  32. ___________is a location mistakenly thought to be the last place on Earth without any pollution from human activities.
    The North slope of Alaska
  33. To convert high sulfur coal into a gas:
    Coal gasification
  34. Waste produced in our homes and businesses, agriculture, manufacturing and other sources:
    A waste stream
  35. Ocean Conveyor:
    How water moves North from tropics
  36. Volcanoes emit _____ into the atmosphere
    sulfur oxides
  37. A ______ stream is one that only flows during rainfall or shortly after
    ephemeral
  38. the percentage of light received by a surface that is reflected and scattered is _________
    Albedo
  39. Fish are abundant where there is high production of ______
    Algae
  40. What is the most probable result of overgrazing?
    desertification
  41. we can expect a _______ ° C increase in annual mean temperature due to global warming.
    3 to 5
  42. 20% of the nation’s commercial shellfish beds have at times been closed (mostly temporarily) because of _________
    pollution
  43. What is one way farmers can avoid degrading the
    soil
    Using no-till agriculutre
  44. most common goal(s) of channelization projects are:
    flood control
  45. The _____ Bay, used to be a large fishery
    Cheasepeake
  46. The sea level is rising about _____ a year
    1/8 inch
  47. An aquifer is an underground __________.
    undergournd layer of rock, sand, or gravel
  48. Fastest growing energy source:
    Solar
  49. Expected peak oil production
    2020 - 2050 AD
  50. Risk analysis contains
    assesment, management, and communication
  51. The goal of the Marine Mammal Protection Act is
    optimum sustainable population
  52. _________ is found in trace amounts in the atmosphere.
    Methane
  53. A gene that makes seeds sterile is a _______ gene
    terminator
  54. Dioxin is an example of persistent __________ pollutant
    organic
  55. The big three plants that most people in the world eat are:
    Rice, Wheat, and Corn
  56. Approximately, how much food does one person
    consume in America per year?
    half ton
  57. The United States, with 5% of the world’s population, uses about _____ of the total energy?
    20%
  58. gamma, alpha, beta are the three major _______ particles
    nuclear
  59. Fish are the main source of animal protein for about ______ people worldwide.
    1 billion
  60. Geothermal energy is defined as ___________.
    natural heat emminating from the earth
  61. What are the 3 major forms of fossil fuels?
    Oil, Natural Gas, Coal
  62. 72 million people are added to the planet each year
  63. The first major increase in human population occurred during the ________
    Rise of agriculure
  64. Thomas Malthus advocated that human population will
    be reduced by our own vices
  65. _____ made the reindeers go extinct
    lack of available nutrients
  66. What does "biota" refer to?
    All living things in an area
  67. A country with a high growth rate will display a ________ shape
    pryamid
  68. Primary Sucession is:
    the initial establishment and development of an ecosystem where one did not exist before.
  69. Two species that compete for the same life resources and have exactly the same requirements ________.
    Cannot coexist in the same habitat
  70. Chronic patchiness is found in which ecosystem?
    Desert
  71. What caused the number of water buffallos to explode
    Lack of predators
  72. It only took 3 days for the radiation from Chernoybl to spead around ________
    the world
  73. Shelterwood cutting is an alternative to ________, that leaves some trees standing
    clear-cutting
  74. What does the principle of "environmental unity" say?
    Everything affects everything else
  75. the further away from the mainland an island is, the __________ number of species there will be on the island.
    fewer
  76. In the study of adaptive radiation of honeycreepers in Hawaii, the varying beak size and shape
    arose from differing food type and availability
  77. _______ occurs in deserts where individual plants grow apart from each other and do not interact at all.
    Chronic Patchiness
  78. Societies consisting of populations with exponential growth may exceed the area's _____________ and thus be unsustainable.
    Carrying capacity
  79. a community of species and their nonliving environment in which energy flows and chemicals cycle is an ___________
    ecosystem
  80. tectonic, hydrologic, rock, and biogeochemical cycles comprise the ___________
    geological cycle
  81. sedimentary rocks exposed to heat, pressure or chemically active fluids form _________ rocks
    Metamorphic
  82. type of boundary occurs where two plates move together causing one plate to descend into the mantle beneath the other plate?
    Convergent
  83. When dune grass prepares the ground for other species to grow, it is an example of _________.
    facilitation
  84. greatest amount of biomass, diversity, and organic matter are found in this age of succession.
    Middle
  85. _________ is one of the "Big Six" elements necessary as the building blocks of life.
    Sulfur
  86. The total number of species is defined as:
    Species Richness
  87. Generally, interference refers to
    _______ successional species preventing the establishment of
    _______ successional species.
    early, late
  88. When one species affects another species that, in turn, affects a third species, it is called
    Community Level Effect
  89. Birth rates have ______ faster in countries that have a ______ standard of living than in countries with a ______ standard of living
    declined, higher, lower
  90. _______ can result in new species
    Biological Evolution
  91. concept of _______ leads to _______ and ________.
    sustainable society, sustainable economy, sustainable development.
  92. Gifford Pinchot
    founded US Foresrtry Service
  93. ______ casuses techntonic plate movemenet
    Convection currents
  94. _________ is a situation in which action of one economic agent affects the production of
    another in a way that is not reflected in the market.
    A) opportunity cost
    B) internality
    C) externality
    D) factor-of-tolerance
    C
  95. The burning of fossil fuels may cause _______ when released into the air.
    A) acid rain
    B) alkaline rain
    C) heavy rain
    D) a longer rainy season
    A
  96. Applying biodegradable waste materials to near-surface soil in order to allow microorganisms to break them down is known as:
    A) land application
    B) deep-well disposal
    C) surface impounding
    D) microbial farming
    A) Land Application
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  97. Natural resources are often exhausted because many resources are held______, and because of _________.
    A) in common, high productivity
    B) in common, low productivity
    C) privately, low productivity
    D) privately, high productivity
    B) in common, low productivity
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  98. One of the most disruptive consequences of natural disasters is their impact on the economy. The cost of natural disasters in the United States is between:
    A) $1 billion and $2 billion per year
    B) $10 thousand and $50 thousand per year
    C) $1 million and $5 million per year
    D) $10 billion and $50 billion per year
    D) $10 billion and $50 billion per year
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  99. Define photochemical smog.
    A) Smog produced by photosynthesis.
    B) Smog produced from high albedo water surface.
    C) Smog produced by chemicals in the presence of light.
    D) Smog produced from old photographic processing fluids.
    C) Smog produced by chemicals in the presence of light.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  100. The amount of time that waste remains in the biosphere is called:
    A) surface impoundment
    B) land application
    C) cradle-to-grave
    D) biopersistence
    D) biopersistence
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  101. According to U.S. history, which of the following natural hazards is the most disruptive in terms of number of deaths per year?:
    A) Frost and freeze
    B) Flood
    C) Volcano
    D) Landslide
    B) Flood
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  102. The earth's crust by mass is mostly made up of:
    A) chlorine
    B) magnesium
    C) oxygen
    D) calcium
    C) oxygen
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  103. Which of the following is an example of area source pollution?:
    A) The fumes from a bus driving down the highway.
    B) Smoke emitting from your home chimney.
    C) A drainpipe dumping hot water from an industrial cooling system into a
    stream.
    D) An agricultural area that uses pesticides heavily.
    D) An agricultural area that uses pesticides heavily.
  104. The cost to clean up a lake continues to increase as more and more progress is made, this is an example of ______.
    A) the law of diminishing returns
    B) the law of two thirds
    C) the law of futility
    D) the law of exponentiality
    A) the law of diminishing returns
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  105. Primary pollutants are_______.
    A) mixtures of organic and inorganic matter.
    B) the cause of soil erosion.
    C) emitted directly into the air.
    D) the chemicals from old, worn out batteries.
    C) emitted directly into the air.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  106. At divergent boundaries, metals are _________ while at convergent boundaries metals are _________.
    A) subjected to cold and pressure then crack, sequestered in leached metal
    sulfides
    B) formed into metal sulfides, mobilized in molten rock
    C) mobilized in molten rocks, are formed into metal sulfides
    D) sequestered in leached metal sulfides, subjected to cold and pressure then
    crack
    B) formed into metal sulfides, mobilized in molten rock
  107. About ______ of people in developed countries, and nearly _____ of all people on Earth, live in urban areas.
    A) 50%, two-third
    B) 75%, one-half
    C) 25%, one-third
    D) 50%, one-half
    B) 75%, one-half
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  108. The Tennessee Valley Authority, responsible for promoting economic growth and social well-being across states, was a successful experiment in ________.
    A) regional environmental planning
    B) prairie restoration
    C) reintroduction of wildlife
    D) litigation
    A) regional environmental planning
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  109. The natural environment produces _______ air pollutants than humans do.
    A) less
    B) less toxic
    C) cleaner
    D) more
    D) more
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  110. "In terms of direct effects on human health, it costs more to increase longevity by reducing air pollution than to directly reduce deaths by adding a coronary ambulance system." In terms of environmental economics, this
    statement is an example of:
    A) risk-benefit analysis
    B) negligence
    C) direct control
    D) an externality
    A) risk-benefit analysis
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  111. Modern humans first appeared in the ________.
    A) Jurassic Period
    B) Pleistocene Era
    C) Cambrian Era
    D) Silurian Era
    B) Pleistocene Era
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  112. Which of the following focuses on social issues concerning health risks from living near waste-disposal or other chemical facilities?:
    A) environmental consciousness
    B) environmental anthropology
    C) environmental psychology
    D) environmental justice
    D) environmental justice
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  113. What type of rock holds the major iron ore deposits?
    A) igneous
    B) marble
    C) sedimentary
    D) metamorphic
    C) sedimentary
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  114. Which of the following best defines a natural hazard?:
    A) A natural process that is a potential threat to human life and
    property.
    B) A disruptive event on the environment due to human activities.
    C) Any form of anthropogenic pollution released into the atmosphere or aquatic
    effluents.
    D) Any event that occurs over a limited time in a limited geographic area and
    causes significant loss of life and property.
    • D) Any event that occurs over a limited time in a limited geographic area and
    • causes significant loss of life and property.
  115. In terms of environmental economics, honeybees pollinating crops for us is an example of _______.
    A) natural capital
    B) vivipary
    C) positive labor
    D) a direct control
    A) natural capital
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  116. At the water table level of an ore deposit, we are likely to find a(n) ___________ where deposits accumulate.
    A) leached zone
    B) oxidized zone
    C) primary zone
    D) enriched zone
    D) enriched zone
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  117. ________ and ________ account for the majority of the mass of recycled metals in the United States.
    A) Copper, iron
    B) Magnesium, copper
    C) Iron, steel
    D) Steel, copper
    C) Iron, steel
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  118. Who is widely considered to be the father of conservation in America?
    A) Nathanial Hawthorne
    B) Lewis and Clark
    C) Henry David Thoreau
    D) Frederick Law Olmstead
    C) Henry David Thoreau
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  119. Which legislation, passed in 1976, established the cradle-to-grave guidelines for manufacturers and disposers of hazardous waste?
    A) The Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act
    (CERCLA)
    B) The Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA)
    C) The Superfund Regulation Act (SRA)
    D) Hazardous Inhibitors and Pollution Protection Act (HIPPA)
    B) The Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA)
  120. Organic farming is producing food without _________.
    A) biological control, pesticides, and animal hormones
    B) fertilizers, nitrogen compounds, and pesticides
    C) hormones, fertilizers, and antibiotics
    D) artificial pesticides, antibiotics, and hormones
    D) artificial pesticides, antibiotics, and hormones
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  121. The U.S. Water Resources Council estimates that water use in the United States by the year 2020 may exceed surface water resources by ________ percent.
    A) 21%
    B) Over 30%
    C) 2%
    D) 13%
    D) 13%
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  122. Farming is most likely to cause _________.
    A) an increase in soil carbon
    B) a stabilization in the amount of toxic metals
    C) a loss of biodiversity
    D) an increase of biodiversity
    C) a loss of biodiversity
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  123. Isotopes are atoms of an element that are chemically the same but have different atomic weights because they have different numbers of ______?
    A) electrons
    B) quarks
    C) protons
    D) neutrons
    D) neutrons
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  124. Define synfuels.
    A) Liquid or gaseous fuels derived from decomposed organic matter.
    B) Synthetically processed petroleum.
    C) Steam energy combined with a synthetic fuel.
    D) Liquid or gaseous fuel from solid fossil fuels.
    D) Liquid or gaseous fuel from solid fossil fuels.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  125. Biological control is the use of _______ and _______ to control agricultural pests.
    A) arsenic, organic compounds
    B) predators, parasites
    C) carbon, other plant compounds
    D) pesticides, fertilizers
    B) predators, parasites
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  126. The Southern Oscillation is known informally as:
    A) El Niño
    B) Decadal Oscillation
    C) El Christo
    D) El Toro
    A) El Niño
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  127. An example of persistent organic pollutant is:
    A) dioxin
    B) methane
    C) hydrocarbons
    D) CFCs
    A) dioxin
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  128. A person flying over the Chernobyl site two days after the explosion most probably experienced a(n) ________ to radioactive substances.
    A) sub-chronic exposure
    B) acute exposure
    C) chronic exposure
    D) sub-acute exposure
    B) acute exposure
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  129. Upwellings are:
    A) currents rising from the depths of the ocean on continental shelves.
    B) long term mid-ocean mountain chain building.
    C) mid-ocean earthquake causing tsunami like rise in water.
    D) currents rising from the depths of the ocean on the mid-ocean ridge.
    A) currents rising from the depths of the ocean on continental shelves.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  130. A smoke stack releasing toxic metals is an example of _________ source
    pollution.
    A) released
    B) mobile
    C) point
    D) continuous
    C) point
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  131. What is the leading cause of desertification?
    A) Bad farming practices
    B) Global warming
    C) Drought
    D) Geography
    A) Bad farming practices
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  132. _______ cutting method removes all but a few mature trees with good genetic characteristics and high seed production to promote the regeneration of the forest.
    A) Seed-tree
    B) Selective
    C) Shelterwood
    D) Clear
    A) Seed-tree
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  133. To restore the fox population in the Channel Islands, ________ are to be removed and ________ are to be reintroduced.
    A) deer, goats
    B) golden eagles, goats
    C) golden eagles, bald eagles
    D) bald eagles, golden eagles
    C) golden eagles, bald eagles
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  134. The greatest amount of biomass, diversity, and organic matter are found in this age of succession.
    A) Climax
    B) Early
    C) Late
    D) Middle
    D) Middle
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  135. In developed countries, what percentage of people live in urban areas?
    A) 95%
    B) 5%
    C) 75%
    D) 35%
    C) 75%
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  136. The first country to adopt an official population policy was?
    A) Germany
    B) India
    C) USA
    D) China
    B) India
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  137. In the annual calcium cycle, the highest flux rates are in _______.
    A) root leakage
    B) loss to biosphere
    C) biological uptake
    D) loss to streams
    C) biological uptake
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  138. In the theory of Island Biogeography, the closer an island is to the mainland:
    A) the less immigration and emigration can occur between the land masses.
    B) the
    more immigration and emigration can occur between the land masses.
    C) makes no difference in immigration and emigration between the
    land masses.
    D) the more resources can be obtained from the mainland to support the
    islanders.
    B) themore immigration and emigration can occur between the land masses.
  139. Patterns of speciation and extinction are least likely to be affected by:
    A) climatic changes
    B) meteorites crashing into the earth
    C) local changes in the weather
    D) continental drift
    C) local changes in the weather
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  140. What can cause a population to continue to increase after a crash in resources and subsequent reduced fertilization rate?
    A) government intervention
    B) increase in disease
    C) existing pregnancy
    D) increase in medicine
    C) existing pregnancy
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  141. Early-successional species grow well in _______ and have seeds that can survive for a _______ period of time.
    A) dark, long
    B) full sunlight, short
    C) shade, short
    D) shade, long
    D) shade, long
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  142. Longevity is synonymous with_______.
    A) the time a contaminant persists in water
    B) life expectancy
    C) maximum life expectancy
    D) maximum life time
    D) maximum life time
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  143. Species that benefit each other, but are not essential to each other are called _________.
    A) subordinate symbionts
    B) facultative symbionts
    C) disordinal symbionts
    D) obligate symbionts
    B) facultative symbionts
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  144. Metamorphic rock forms from:
    A) sedimentary rocks exposed to heat, pressure or chemically active
    fluids.
    B) molten material such as lava, which are broken down by physical and chemical
    weathering.
    C) accumulation of weathered material in depositional basins.
    D) sedimentary rocks broken down by physical and chemical weathering.
    A) sedimentary rocks exposed to heat, pressure or chemically activefluids.
  145. The geologic cycle consists of the:
    A) tectonic, hydrologic, rock, and biogeochemical cycles
    B) tectonic, limnic, and biogeochemical cycles.
    C) hydrologic, rock, and biogeochemical cycles.
    D) tectonic, rock and biogeochemical cycles.
    A) tectonic, hydrologic, rock, and biogeochemical cycles
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  146. The first plants to appear after a disturbance are called _________.
    A) invasive species
    B) deciduous species
    C) saprophytic species
    D) pioneer species
    D) pioneer species
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  147. When one species affects another species that, in turn, affects a third species, it is called:
    A) global effect.
    B) community-level effect.
    C) random access effect.
    D) ecosystem level effect.
    B) community-level effect.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  148. After which event would secondary succession occur?
    A) forest fire
    B) volcanic island
    C) glacial retreat
    D) lava flow
    A) forest fire
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  149. Dune grasses _________ succession on sand dunes.
    A) facilitate
    B) accentuate
    C) disturb
    D) interfere with
    A) facilitate
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  150. Nearly all of the carbon stored in the ______ exists as sedimentary rocks. Most of this is in the form of carbonates, such as limestone.
    A) Lithosphere
    B) Asthenosphere
    C) Biosphere
    D) Atmosphere
    A) Lithosphere
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  151. Ruminants, such as elk, have four-chambered stomachs teeming with billions of microbes. The bacteria digest woody tissue that the elk cannot fully digest on their own.
    The bacteria also convert nitrogen into organic compounds and give off fatty acids that benefit the elk. In return, the elk provide an environment that allows the bacteria to survive. In this case, both bacteria and elk are
    ___________.
    A) subordinate symbionts
    B) obligate symbionts
    C) facultative symbionts
    D) mutual symbionts
    B) obligate symbionts
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  152. According to Chapter 5 of the text, justifications for saving endangered species include all of the following EXCEPT:
    A) cultural justification
    B) moral justification
    C) economic justification
    D) aesthetic and spiritual justification
    C) economic justification
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  153. Biological evolution ________.
    A) is always an effect of migration
    B) is always beneficial to the species
    C) can result in new species
    D) can move forwards and backwards
    C) can result in new species
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  154. Which of these sets of elements are considered the
    fundamental building blocks of life?:
    A) C,H,O,N,P,B
    B) C,H,O,N,F,S
    C) C,H,O,N,P,F
    D) C,H,O,N,S,P
    D) C,H,O,N,S,P
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  155. Approximately how many people are added to the planet every year?
    A) 72 million
    B) 1 billion
    C) 165 million
    D) 2 million
    A) 72 million
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  156. What is the planet’s current population growth rate?
    A) 1%
    B) -3.80%
    C) -1.2%
    D) 6.30%
    A) 1%
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  157. The four processes that lead to biological evolution are:
    A) Mutation, genetic drift, genetic modification, and conservation
    B) Mutation, migration, predation, and population decline
    C) Mutation, Natural Selection, Migration, and Genetic Drift
    D) Mutation, natural selection, predation, and genetic modification
    C) Mutation, Natural Selection, Migration, and Genetic Drift
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  158. An ecosystem is:
    A) a community of species and their nonliving environment in which nutrients
    flow.
    B) a community of genuses and their nonliving environment in which nutrients
    flow and chemicals cycle.
    C) a community of species and their nonliving environment in which chemicals
    are formed.
    D) a community of species and their nonliving environment in which energy
    flows and chemicals cycle.
    D) a community of species and their nonliving environment in which energyflows and chemicals cycle.
  159. Which of the following sentences does not describe natural hazards?
    A) Natural hazards are both recognizable and predictable
    B) Harmful effects of hazards can be minimized
    C) Risk from hazards cannot be estimated
    D) Natural hazard events also have natural service functions for ecosystems and
    people
    C) Risk from hazards cannot be estimated
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  160. Concentrations of metals found in open crevices or
    fractures at the bottoms of pools, on the inside curves of bends, or where shallow water flows over rocks are called:
    A) placer deposits
    B) concretion deposits
    C) metalurgical deposits
    D) igneous deposits
    A) placer deposits
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  161. Modern municipal solid waste landfills are designed to monitor this subtance, which is made of water and dissolved material moving through the landfill:
    A) leachate
    B) e-waste
    C) sludge
    D) biosolids
    A) leachate
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  162. If a natural resource is destroyed during an industrial process, and the value of that natural resource is not reflected in the price of the product, then the value
    of that resource is considered to be a(n)__________
    A) threshold
    B) periodical
    C) externality
    D) lost wage
    C) externality
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  163. Ozone is an example of a pollutant.
    A) tertiary
    B) primary
    C) quaternary
    D) secondary
    D) secondary
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  164. What is not always a negative aspect of farming?
    A) Fertilization
    B) Loss of biodiversity
    C) Desertification
    D) Salinization
    A) Fertilization
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  165. The goal of the Marine Mammal Protection Act is:
    A) Maximum sustainable yield
    B) Optimum sustainable population
    C) Establishing carrying capacity
    D) maintaining aquaculture production
    B) Optimum sustainable population
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  166. _______ is the only naturally occurring fissionable form, and therefore it is essential
    to the production of nuclear energy.
    A) Uranium 234
    B) Uranium 233
    C) Uranium 238
    D) Uranium 235
    D) Uranium 235
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  167. Today, in developing countries, biomass (mainly wood)
    provides about ______ of the total energy supply.
    A) 35%
    B) 5%
    C) 20%
    D) 80%
    A) 35%
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  168. Minamata disease is caused by:
    A) food poisoning
    B) mercury poisoning
    C) protein deficiency
    D) interactions with inorganic compounds
    B) mercury poisoning
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  169. Approximately ______ of the water vapor passing over
    the United States every day falls as presipitation (as rain, snow, hail, or sleet).
    A) 10%
    B) 20%
    C) 5%
    D) 1%
    A) 10%
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  170. During the last two million years or so, the climate of the Earth has:
    A) Slowly decreased in humidity
    B) Been very constant
    C) Swung sharply both up and down in temperature
    D) Slowly increased in temperature
    C) Swung sharply both up and down in temperature
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  171. How much of an increase of atmospheric carbon dioxide
    has occurred since the beginning of the Industrial Revolution?
    A) 52%
    B) 70%
    C) 12%
    D) 32%
    D) 32%
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  172. Currently
    aquaculture provides more than ____ of all fish harvest annually.
    A) 5%
    B) 20%
    C) 75%
    D) 50%
    B) 20%
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  173. The United States, with 5% of the world’s population, uses about _____ of the total energy?
    A) 12%
    B) 5%
    C) 35%
    D) 20%
    D) 20%
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  174. ____________ happens when sediments carry fertilizers which causes growth of aquatic algae.
    A) Eutrophication
    B) Toxicification
    C) Salinization
    D) Sedimentation
    A) Eutrophication
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  175. A threshold dose-response model:
    A) errs on the side of safety.
    B) implies that each dose of ionizing radiation or toxic chemical carries a
    C) implies there is a dose below which no detectable harmful effects occur.
    risk of causing harm.
    D) is useful for assessing chronic toxicity.
    C) implies there is a dose below which no detectable harmful effects occur.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  176. What is not involved in biological control of agricultural pests?
    A) Fertilization
    B) Parasites
    C) Predators
    D) Bacillus thuringiensis
    A) Fertilization
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  177. Dose-response curves:
    A) show the effects of various doses of toxic agents on a group of test organisms.
    B) are extrapolated using mathematical models to project possible
    effects of high doses.
    C) are extrapolated from humans to other primates.
    D) Compare the effects of a fixed dose of different toxins to one another
    A) show the effects of various doses of toxic agents on a group of test organisms.
  178. Continental shelves provide _________ of the fishery harvest.
    A) 32%
    B) 90%
    C) 25%
    D) 50%
    B) 90%
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  179. The effects of flooding are more destructive today
    than in the past because:
    A) Soil with plant cover is ineffective in absorbing excess water
    B) Retaining walls are too expensive to build in all of the appropriate locations
    C) Buildings are constructed on flood plains
    D) The use of levees has been determined to be an unsound engineering practice
    C) Buildings are constructed on flood plains
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  180. 97% of all water on earth is in the oceans. Which of the following is the correct order of the Earth's water storage compartments?
    A) Oceans, atmosphere, lakes, groundwater, rivers, ice caps
    B) Oceans, groundwater, rivers, ice
    caps, atmosphere, lakes
    C) Oceans, ice caps, groundwater, lakes ,
    atmosphere, rivers
    D) Oceans, lakes, ice caps, groundwater, atmosphere, rivers
    C) Oceans, ice caps, groundwater, lakes ,atmosphere, rivers
  181. Massive and rapid algae growth is stimulated by the addition of_______to surface water bodies.
    A) Nitrogen and phosphorus
    B) Oxygen
    C) Aerobic bacteria
    D) Carbon dioxide
    A) Nitrogen and phosphorus
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  182. Shrimp farms threaten the existence of:
    A) Mangrove forests
    B) Oldgrowth forests
    C) Coral Reefs
    D) Sand bars
    A) Mangrove forests
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  183. Exponential growth:
    A) occurs at an increasing rate per time period.
    B) occurs at a constant rate per time period.
    C) occurs at a decreasing rate per time period.
    D) occurs at a equilibrium setting rate per time period.
    B) occurs at a constant rate per time period.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  184. About ______ of the total atmosphere is nitrogen gas; however, this pool is not directly available as a nutrient.
    A) 35%
    B) 80%
    C) 50%
    D) 10%
    B) 80%
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  185. Carbon forms two of the most important greenhouse gases—carbon dioxide and ______ ?
    A) Methane
    B) Nitrous oxide
    C) The only greenhouse gas formed by Carbon, is Carbon dioxide
    D) Ammonia
    A) Methane
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  186. Chronic diseases are present in a _______ but _______ percentage of the population and include diseases such as heart disease, cancer and strokes.
    A) large, constant
    B) small, fluxuating
    C) large, fluxuating
    D) small, constant
    D) small, constant
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  187. Why can we say that nitrogen is essential to life?
    A) It is needed to manufacture proteins and DNA
    B) It is the basic element used in synapses
    C) It is the final electron receiver in respiration
    D) It is needed to produce hemoglobin in our body
    A) It is needed to manufacture proteins and DNA
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  188. ________ is the practice of cutting dead and less
    desirable trees first and cutting desirable trees later so that there are always young trees left in the forest.
    A) Selective cutting
    B) Thinning
    C) Shelterwood cutting
    D) Seed-tree cutting
    C) Shelterwood cutting
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  189. Forests covered an estimated _________ of the Earth's land area in 1950 but only _________ in 1980.
    A) 2/3, 1/4
    B) 1/4, 1/10
    C) 1/4, 1/5
    D) 1/2, 1/5
    C) 1/4, 1/5
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  190. An ecological justification places value on:
    A) factors essential to life support functions of the ecosphere or ecosystem
    B) beauty and the aesthetic appeal to humanity.
    C) ecosystem growth and productivity
    D) the rightness or wrongness of an action
    A) factors essential to life support functions of the ecosphere or ecosystem
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  191. Deforestation in one country can cause __________ in another country.
    A) flooding
    B) wind
    C) landslides
    D) rain
    A) flooding
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  192. A lava flow describes what kind of succession?
    A) Secondary
    B) Climax
    C) Tertiary
    D) Primary
    D) Primary
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  193. A community of living organisms interacting with one another and the physical and chemical factors of their nonliving environment is called a(n):
    A) ecosystem
    B) species
    C) population
    D) lithosphere
    A) ecosystem
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  194. An organism's ecological niche is:
    A) The point at which the organisms resource needs overlap causing competition
    B) The temperature range in which an organism occurs when there is competition from other organisms
    C) The temperature range in which an organism occurs when there is no competition from other organisms
    D) the set of environmental conditions within which a species is able to persist.
    D) the set of environmental conditions within which a species is able to persist.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  195. _________ is the reestablishment of an ecosystem following disturbances.
    A) Primary succession
    B) Tertiary succession
    C) Secondary succession
    D) Restoration
    C) Secondary succession
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  196. Photosynthesis:
    A) converts glucose into energy and water.
    B) produces carbon dioxide and oxygen gas.
    C) yields glucose and oxygen gas as products.
    D) requires the combustion of carbon.
    C) yields glucose and oxygen gas as products.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  197. Define coal gasification.
    A) To convert high sulfur coal into a gas.
    B) To add carbon back into gaseous coal mines.
    C) To add carbon gas into coal.
    D) To convert sulfur gas into coal.
    A) To convert high sulfur coal into a gas.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  198. _________ is found in trace amounts in the atmosphere.
    A) carbon
    B) nitrogen
    C) oxygen
    D) methane
    D) methane
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  199. The profession of growing trees is known as:
    A) Restoration Ecology
    B) Forealculture
    C) Silviculture
    D) Arborealculture
    C) Silviculture
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  200. Acorn abundance is tied to Lyme disease abundance through mice, ticks, deer and humans. This is an example of:
    A) a forest food web.
    B) a symbiotic
    interaction.
    C) the competitive exclusion principle.
    D) an ecological niche.
    A) a forest food web.
  201. Which of the following is true of autotrophs?:
    A) They can live without heterotrophs.
    B) They are known as decomposers.
    C) They might eat heterotrophs.
    D) They cannot perform photosynthesis.
    A) They can live without heterotrophs.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  202. How many species of birds native to the United States have been infected with the West Nile virus?
    A) 25
    B) 400
    C) 5000
    D) 100
    A) 25
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  203. The _________ approach estimates how many people can be put onto our planet, without taking into account Earth’s ability to supply their needs, such as the need for food.
    A) exponential population growth
    B) packing problem
    C) carrying capacity
    D) abundance
    B) packing problem
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  204. The concept of "carrying capacity" refers to:
    A) Amount of environmental degradation that a particular ecosystem can support without losing its capacity to regenerate .
    B) Maximum number of individuals of a single species that can be sustained
    by an environment without reducing the environment's ability to sustain the
    same number of individuals in the future.
    C) Maximum number of individuals of
    different species that can be sustained by an environment without reducing the
    environment's ability to sustain the same number of individuals in the future.
    D) Number of offspring a woman can bear in her life.
    B) Maximum number of individuals of a single species that can be sustained
  205. Douglas-fir regeneration responds well to:
    A) Moist understories
    B) Full sun conditions
    C) Shade conditions
    D) Bog-like conditions
    B) Full sun conditions
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  206. The term ombrotrophic refers to a water system that is fed mainly by
    A) an underground
    B) rainwater and air.
    C) a stream.
    source.
    D) transpiration from plants.
    B) rainwater and air.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  207. When two populations of the same species become geographically isolated from each other for a long time, the two populations may change so much genetically that
    they can no longer reproduce together, even when they are brought back into contact. This is known as ____.
    A) divergent evolution
    B) mutation
    C) genetic drift
    D) functional evolution
    A) divergent evolution
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  208. Water demand during the past half-century has ______ as the human population has more than _______.
    A) tripled, doubled
    B) quadrupled, tripled
    C) quadrupled, doubled
    D) doubled, tripled
    A) tripled, doubled
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  209. Irrigation can lead to ________ of farmland.
    A) volatilization
    B) eutrophication
    C) desertification
    D) salinization
    D) salinization
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  210. Intertidal areas _______.
    A) flood and drain twice a day
    B) flood, but don't drain
    C) never flood and drain
    D) flood sporadically
  211. At Fort Valley Experimental Forest, why was the Ponderosa pine forest in trouble?
    A) Trees would only grow on the west side of the forest due to soil erosion.
    B) The forest was prevented from ever having a fire disturbance as part of its growth process.
    C) Insects were eating away at young trees, so they weren’t able to grow to their full potential.
    D) There were several months of drought.
    B) The forest was prevented from ever having a fire disturbance as part of its growth process.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  212. Maximum potential lifetime (longevity) is determined by _______.
    A) geographic location
    B) genetics
    C) wealth
    D) health
    B) genetics
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  213. The myth of the "balance of nature" states that:
    A) the natural environment cannot reach an equilibrium state without human interference.
    B) the natural environment has an integral role in balancing human lives.
    C) only humans can bring the natural environment to an equilibrium state.
    D) the natural environment will reach an equilibrium state when not influenced by human activity.
    D) the natural environment will reach an equilibrium state when not influenced by human activity.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  214. Which of the following is an adaptation of late-successional species?:
    A) Heliotropic (sun-loving)
    B) Fast growing
    C) Seeds that spread quickly.
    D) Shade tolerance
    D) Shade tolerance
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  215. Who was the man behind the term preservation in environmental science?
    A) John Muir
    B) Gifford Pincho
    C) Teddy Roosevelt
    tD) Aldo Leopold
    A) John Muir
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  216. The largest phosphorous stores on Earth are in the_________.
    A) Earth’s ocean sediments
    B) Earth’s expansive oceans
    C) Earth’s outer crust
    tD) Earth’s plants and animals
    C) Earth’s outer crust
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  217. Soils have _______ quantities of chemical elements, but elements in living tissues are ________ to other organisms.
    A) lower, more available
    B) higher, less available
    C) lower, less available
    D) higher, more available
    D) higher, more available
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  218. Which of the following is an example of a system sink and flux?
    A Sink: a dam, Flux: an ocean
    B) Sink: a landslide, Flux: shifting of ground sediments
    C) Sink: underground water storage, Flux: ice caps
    D) Sink: forests of the world, Flux: amount of carbon transferred from atmosphere to forest
    D) Sink: forests of the world, Flux: amount of carbon transferred from atmosphere to forest
  219. Primary succession is:
    A) re-establishment of an ecosystem following disturbance.
    B) the creation of genetically identical offspring following asexual reproduction.
    C) the initial establishment and development of an ecosystem where one did not exist before.
    D) the tendency of some trees to resprout from their stump after they have been cut down, struck by lightning, or otherwise damaged.
    C) the initial establishment and development of an ecosystem where one did not exist before.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  220. All individuals capable of interbreeding and producing fertile young are defined as a(n):
    A) ecosystem
    B) kingdom
    C) species
    D) community
    C) species
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)

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