anthro final

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anthro final
2011-12-14 23:19:19

final test
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  1. mosaic evolution
    a pattern of evolution in which the rate of evolution in one functional system varies from that in other systems. for example:dental system
  2. proto-hominids
    resembling an early hominid
  3. paleoecologists
    the investigation of individuals, populations, and communities of ancient organisms and their interactions with and dynamic responses to changing environments.
  4. artifacts
    something made or given shape by man, such as a tool or a work of art, esp an object of archaeological interest
  5. taphonomy
    the study of how bones and other materials came to be buried in the erath and presereved as fossils.
  6. association
    the act of associating or the state of being
  7. chronometric dating-absolute dating
    a dating technique that gives an estimate in actual numbers of years
  8. mineral stratigraphy
    rocks are characterized by their heavy mineral contents.
  9. bio-stratigraphy
    the branch of stratigraphy which focuses on correlating and assigning relative ages of rock strata by using the fossil assemblages contained within them.
  10. half-life
    the period of time it takes for the amount of a substance undergoing decay to decrease by half.
  11. paleomagnetism
    the study of the record of the Earth's magnetic field in rocks. Certain minerals in rocks lock-in a record of the direction and intensity of the magnetic field when they form.
  12. association
    associating with different hominins
  13. chopper/flake
    thin edged fragment removed from a core
  14. core
    stone reduced from flake removal. a core may or may not itself be used as a tool
  15. lithic-knapping
    stone tools
  16. direct percussion
    striking a core or flake with a hammer stone
  17. microliths
    small stone stools usually produced from narrow blades punched from a core
  18. pressure flaking
    a method of removing flakes froma core by pressing a pointed implement against the stone
  19. microwear
    polishes striations and other diagnostic microscopic changes on the edges of stone tools
  20. phytoliths
    microscopic silica structures formed in the cells of many plants particularly grasses
  21. evolutionary pulse
    during the pliocene in early pleistocene the enviornment all across africa became more arid
  22. stable carbon isotopes
    isotopes of carbon that are produced in plants in deffering proportions depending environmental conditions.
  23. hominoid
    Of or belonging to the superfamily Hominoidea, which includes apes and humans.
  24. hominid
    humans and bipedal relatives, orangutans gorillas, bonobos, chimps, and humans
  25. paleoanthropology
    the study of aincent humans
  26. miocene
    quadropedal brain smaller than hominins, large front teeth.
  27. pliocene
    is the period in the geologic timescale that extends from 5.332 million to 2.588[2] million years before present.
  28. pleistocene
    • This mammoth, found in deposits in Russia, was one of the largest land mammals
    • of the Pleistocene, the time period that spanned from 1.8 million to ~10,000
    • years ago. Pleistocene biotas were extremely close to modern ones — many genera
    • and even species of Pleistocene conifers, mosses, flowering plants, insects, mollusks, birds, mammals, and others survive to this day.
  29. holocene
    • The Holocene is the name given to the last ~10,000 years of the Earth's history the time since the end of the last major glacial epoch, or "ice age." Since
    • then, there have been small-scale climate shifts notably the "Little Ice Age" between about 1200 and 1700 A.D. but in general, the Holocene has been a
    • relatively warm period in between ice ages.
  30. quadruped
    long pelvis, some forms capable of considerable arm swinging, suspensory locomotion
  31. biped
    having two feet, any animal with only two feet.
  32. bipedalism structures
    The human foot evolved to act as a platform, Modern human hip joints are larger, Human knee joints are enlarged, An increase in leg length, The human skull is balanced on the vertebral column, shortened pelvis, showing smaller body size and long arms relative to legs, long fingers and toes probably capable of climbing
  33. homology
    The quality or condition of being homologous.
  34. foramen magnum location
    a large opening in the occipital bone
  35. fixed s-curved spine
    "S-curve" of the lower spine that allows hominids their characteristic upright bipedality
  36. sqaure pelvis
    an anatomical structure found in humans (see human pelvis) or in animals. It contains a large compound bone structure at the base of the spine, which is connected with the legs or rear limbs.
  37. shallow olecranon fossa
    • a shallow depression in the posterior surface of the humerus that receives the olecranon
    • of the ulna when the forearm is extended.
  38. locking knees
    what humans can do
  39. femur medical orientation
    the bone in the leg that extends from the hip to the knee. The femur constitutes the upper leg, that part of the leg above the knee. As compared to the lower leg which boasts two bones (the tibia and the fibula), the upper leg has only one bone, the femur, but a very large bone it is, the largest in the human body.
  40. longitudinal arch
    The Longitudinal arch of the foot can be broken down into several smaller arches:The main arches are the antero-posterior arches, which may, for descriptive purposes, be regarded as divisible into two types—a medial and a lateral
  41. non-divergent big toe
    belonging to homosapiens
  42. thorax funnel shape
    The chest is conical in shape, being small above and large below. Gorillas have funnel shape bodies like gorillas cuz they eat plants
  43. thorax barrel shape
    homoerectus , means they eat meat
  44. crania
    plural of cranium
  45. postcrania
    • Situated behind the cranium. Consisting of the parts or structures behind the
    • cranium
  46. sectorial premolars
    a unicuspid first lower premolar with a shearing edge.
  47. hominid dentition
    changes in hominid dentittions are linked to feeding behaviour, or to the manufacture and use of tools.
  48. prognathism
    a term used to describe the positional relationship of the mandible and/or maxilla to the skeletal base where either of the jaws protrudes beyond a predetermined imaginary line in the coronal plane of the skull.
  49. sagittal crest
    a ridge of bone running lengthwise along the midline of the top of the skull (at the sagittal suture) of many mammalian and reptilian skulls, among others.
  50. Nicholas Steno
    a Danish pioneer in both anatomy and geology. Already in 1659 he decided not to accept anything simply written in a book, instead resolving to do research himself. He is considered the father of geology and stratigraphy. Steno was beatified by Pope John Paul II in 1987.
  51. nuchal crest
    a projection, or projecting structure or ridge, especially one surmounting a bone or its border.
  52. supra-orbital tori
    or brow ridge, refer to a bony ridge located above the eye sockets of all primates
  53. endocast
    the internal cast of a hollow object, often specifically used for an endocasts of the cranial vault
  54. encephalization
    the amount of brain mass exceeding that related to an animal's total body mass
  55. dental cusps
    A cusp is a hard eminence on a tooth that emerges from the surface of which the tooth bites.
  56. masseter muscles
    one of the muscles of mastication. A thick, somewhat quadrilateral muscle, consisting of two parts, superficial and deep. The fibers of the two portions are continuous at their insertion
  57. temporalis muscles
    one of the muscles of mastication. It arises from the temporal fossa and the deep part of temporal fascia. It passes medial to the zygomatic arch and inserts onto the coronoid process of the mandible
  58. osteodontokeratic
    the tool kit of our hominid ancestor Australopithecus africanus.
  59. East African Sites
    Olduvai and rift valley main sites,
  60. South African Sites
    most important site is Taung,sterkfontein site, Swartkrans and Malapa, it has layers of accumulated limestone, and it is more difficult to locate fossils then in the east side
  61. aramis
    part of the Middle Awash, northern Ethiopia and East Africa, the skeleton Ardi, a girl, was found here, 4.4 million years old has 50 % of the skeleton, found by Tim white
  62. toros-menalla
    an African site in Chad, the oldest and earliest hominin pre-australopiths cranium, called Sahelanthropus dating approx 6mya or older.
  63. hadar
    where Lucy was discovered in 1974, and is part of the Middle Awash, northern Ethiopia and East Africa, where australopithecus afarensis come from.
  64. olduvai george
    located on the eastern branch of the Great Rift Valley of Africa in Tanzania, discovered by Mary Leakey. more then 150 species have been discovered there. Zinjanthropus cranium was discovered there in 1959
  65. taung
    the site where Raymond Dart found a childs skull, half human half ape from Taung S Africa
  66. swartkrans
    one of the important sites of south africa, 2008 two partial skeletons were found in malapa cave miles from here
  67. lake turkana
    in Kenya E africa, where the first paranthropus was found, a complete skull names "Black Skull" dates 2.5 mya
  68. sterkfontein
    is int south africs, Ron clarke and Phillip tobias found a foot that the large tow was divergent meaning that this hominin wasnt fully bipedal because it could climb trees.
  69. laeotoli
    near Olduvai Gorge and in Tanzania, this site has provided well preserved hominin footprints. australopithecus afarensis come from
  70. Ngangong
    the most recent groups of erectus fossils from Java come from here.14 individuals have been found and are only 25000-50000 years old
  71. great rift valley
    part of east africa where early hominin sites are located,
  72. raymond dart
    found a childs skull in Taung in 1924 classified as Australopithecus africanus
  73. Robert Broom
    1938, he found the first robust australopithecine skull at Kromdraai after a schoolboy discovered some teeth at the site. Further finds followed, but it was not until Broom published a major monograph on the australopithecines in 1946 and the influential British scientist W. E. Le Gros Clark examined the fossils in 1947 that most scientists finally accepted that the australopithecines were hominids
  74. Louis Leakey
    1931 made his first trip to Olduvai, he names the fossil remains found in Olduvai and Turkana homo habilis. 1960 he found a skull dated 1.4mya cc1067cm largest out of all H. erectus
  75. Mary Leakey
    discovered Zinjanthropus cranium at Olduvai George in 1959 she worked in Olduvai from 1935-1984
  76. Richard Leakey
    his team discovered the most complete H. erectus skeleton of an 8yr old WT15000, his cc was 880cm
  77. Meave Leakey
    found Kenyanthropus platyops in Kenya 1995
  78. Donald Johanson
    discovery of the skeleton of the female hominid australopithecine known as "Lucy", in the Afar Triangle region of Hadar, Ethiopia.
  79. Tim White
    discovererd Ardi (ardipithecus)in 2009, brain 300-350 cc
  80. Bridget Senut
    found Orrorin Tugenesis in Kenya.
  81. Michael Brunet
    in 2002 announced the discovery. Brunet announced the discovery in Central Africa of the skull and jaw remains of a late Miocene hominid nicknamed Toumaï
  82. Sahelanthropus Tchadensis
    brain case is small not bigger then a chimp 320-380 cc, oldest potential homini but not sure, found in Toros-Menella C AFrica 7.0-6.0mya
  83. Orrorin Tugenesis
    is the preaustralopith recognized as a hominin, 6.0 mya, found in Tugen Hills, E Africa. first hominin with post cranial remains: possibly bipedal. found by Bridget Senut and Martin Pickford in 2001
  84. Adripithecus Kadabba
    found by time white 1998 in Ethiopia basil with large canines they walked and could stand 5.8 mya
  85. Ardipithecus Ramidus
    4.4mya, in E Africa, found in Aramis site, derived bipedal. Found by Tim White 1995. blunted teeth, derived meta-tarsals, phalanges had some flex.
  86. Kenyanthropus platyops
    3.9mya found by Meave Leakey in 1995 in Kenya . long crania,long face, prognathism strong, foramen magnum vertical, blunted teeth and moderate enamel thickness
  87. Australopithecus Anamensis
    earliest australopiths 4.2-3.0 mya from E africa.bipedal but with a large canine , and a sharp lower first premolar found by Meave Leakey
  88. Australopithecus afarensis
    male 99lb female 64lb, male 59in female 41 in.
  89. Australopithecus ghari
    2.5 mya, Tim White 1996 in Kenya, Ghari comes from East Africa. long face, prognathism strong, foramen magnum vertical, blunted teeth and moderate enamel thickness.
  90. Australopithecus africanus
    m-90lb f-65lb m-54in f-45in, first known as gracile, because they are slender
  91. Australopithecus aethiopicus
    2.7 mya found by Richard Leakey 1985 in Tanzania. massive molarized teeth, blunted teeth and strong enamel thickness, sunken nasal area.
  92. Australopithecus bosei
    m-108lb f-75lb m-54in f-49in
  93. Australopithecus robustus
    m-88lb f-70lb m-52in f-43in big and massive
  94. homo rudolfensis
    • Eastern African species: Homo rudolfensis came in 1993 when
    • scientists found a mandible that was less robust and with smaller cheek teeth
    • than is the case amongst australopithecines. placed under the classification of
    • Homo, rudolfensis stood as a contemporary of Homo habilis.
    • Homo rudolfensis had a flatter, broader face and broader postcanine
    • teeth, with more complex crowns and roots, and thicker enamel.
    • Rudolfensis is also recognized as having a larger cranium.
  95. homo habilis
    m-114lb f-70lb m-62in f-49in . refers to those early homo fossils from Olduvai and Turkana Basin , their cranial capacity was 631 cm
  96. basal hominids
    Sahelanthropus tchadensis from chad is the oldest basal hominid 7mya
  97. gracile australopithecines: early/late
    • slender small bodied, later called Australopithecus africanus from South Africa. Their faces are generally large and prognathic, reducing as you move through
    • time towards a flatter more human-like condition. Similarly, their posterior
    • teeth (molars) are big, generally reducing through time, while the tooth enamel
    • thickness increases through time in the lineage. Theye eat more meat
  98. robust australopithecines: early/late
    massive, they more plants like gorillas
  99. early genus homo
    • 2.0 -1.4mya Homo Habilis (discoverd olduvai gorge)
    • handyman, larger brain may have lead to homo sapiens
    • live at same time as late austra.
    • evolved into one or more species
  100. jersey land
  101. Swanscombe
    site in England,found a partial skull but shows brain expansion 300,000-259,000 ya
  102. Krapina
  103. La Chapelle Aux Saints
    site in France, Neandertal, is the most famour neandertal discovery led to false interpretastions of primitive bent over creature
  104. Terra Amata
  105. Dali
    site in China, they found a nearly complete skull best evidence of a heidelbergensis in Asia 230,000-180,000ya
  106. Levallois
    they struck the core to create flakes till there was no core, then they put all the flakes togehter and mold them into tools.
  107. Spy
  108. Neandertal
  109. Amud
  110. Shanidar
    site in Iraq, several well preserved skeletons, one individual with multiple injuries 70,000-60,000ya
  111. Tabun
    site in Israel, Neandertal, best evidence of early Neandertal morphology in SW Asia
  112. Kebara
  113. Tesik-Tash
    site in Uzbekistan 1938 Alexei Okladnikov found a neandertal
  114. Monte Circeo
  115. occiptal bun
    the bump in the back of the occipital
  116. driving hunting
    drive big animals off cliff as a hunting method
  117. culling hunting
    trapping the animals
  118. open hunting
    hunting in an open space with bow and arrows
  119. supra-orbital torus
    the bone over the socket of the eye where the eyebrow is
  120. saggital torus
    is a thickening of bone on part or all of the midline of the frontal, or parietals where they meet along the sagittal suture
  121. prognathism
    when the maxilla and mandible dont meet like an underbite or over bite
  122. forhead slope
    the slope of the forehead
  123. cranial base flexion
    when the cranium expands
  124. temporal-parietal expansion
  125. post-orbital constriction
  126. flexed burial
    the postition of the body in a bent orientation with arms and legs drawn up to the chest
  127. grave goods
    goods like beads, stone tools, animal bones that are buried with the dead
  128. god-module
  129. supernatural behavior
  130. language production comprehension
  131. larynx location
    The Larynx is in one's neck. It's usually referred to as the "Adam's Apple" in males since it develops more. If you rub your hand down your neck, it's the first big bump - sort of shaped like a triangle.
  132. diaphragm strength
  133. wernicke area
    • At the other end (more specifically, in the superior posterior temporal lobe),
    • lies Wernicke's area, which is associated with the processing
    • of words that we hear being spoken, or language inputs
  134. broca area
    • Broca's area, which is usually associated with the production
    • of language, or language outputs, inputted in the frontal lobe.
  135. aesthetic behavior
  136. symbolic behavior
  137. pressure flaking
  138. halfting
  139. polishing
  140. Erick Trinkhaus
  141. Ofer Bar-Yosef
  142. Neandertal DNA
    light skinned and red heads, and their DNA is 99.84 % like ours
  143. trading
  144. band
  145. transition zones
  146. species grade
    an evolutionary grouping of organisms showing a similar adaptive pattern
  147. Nariokotome
    Kamoya Kimeu discovered a small piece of skull here, this is a site west side of Lake Turkana. The most complete H. erectus skeleton ever found dated 1.6mya. The skeleton is of an 8yr old 5'3 tall
  148. nuchal torus
    a projection of bone in the back of the cranium where neck muscles attach, these muscles hold up the head
  149. Dmansi, Georgia
    the age of this site dates 1.81 mya the Dmanisi crania are similar to the erectus, they have long low brain case, wide base. but they are also diff from other Africa hominins because they have a thinner browridge a lower face n large upper 600 cm, recent find in 2002 a almost complete cranium of an adult male with only one tooth
  150. Eugene Dubois
    in 1891 he found a skullcap cc900cm in the neighboring island Java of Indonesia along the solo river near town of Trinil, this was recognized as the first recognized human ancestor, following year he found a femur and it belonged to the skullcap
  151. Trinil
    where Dubois found the skullcap
  152. Pleistocene
    the epoch of the Cenozoic from 1.8mya until 10,000 ya. Frequently referred to as the Ice Age, this epoch is associated with continental glaciations in northern latitudes. Most of the fossils belong to early and middle Pleistocene and are between 1.6 and 1 mya
  153. Holocene
  154. evotionary pulse
  155. Zhoukoudian
    was a site in Beijing where Chinese used mammal bones as dragon bones for 1929 a fossil skull was discovered. It has the largest collection of erectus including 14 skull caps
  156. Franz Weidenreich
  157. Davidson Black
  158. Pei Wenshong
  159. chopper
    Choppers are stone cores with flakes removed from part of the surface, creating a sharpened edge that was used for cutting, chopping, and scraping
  160. point
    zhoukoudian tools called flint point, chinese tools
  161. awl
    zhoukoudian tools flint awl, chinese tools
  162. burin
    zhoukoudian tools graver or burin, chinese tools
  163. axe
    acheulian biface also known as a hand axe.
  164. 1st Migration out of Africa
    homo erectus first to leave Africa
  165. fire control
  166. fire manufacture
  167. Chesowanja
  168. East Turkana
    where homo erectus was found. Two great findings were nearly complete skull 1.7mys, oldest H. erectus cc 848cm, then the smallest cranium 1.5mya h. erectus cc 691cm
  169. West Turkana
    had the site Nariokotome where nearly complete skeleton was found dated 1.6mya
  170. Bouri
    Bouri Peninsula, Ethiopia , evidence for meat and marrow by early hominins dated back 2.5 mya
  171. Ternifine
  172. Gran Dolina
    this site is dated 850,000-780,000 ya
  173. Atepuerca
    in Spain, in the Sima del Elefante cave was discovered the oldest hominin found in western europe 1.2mya
  174. Sima de los Huesos
    site in Atapuerca, Spain. H. heidelbergensis( early Neandertal) very early evidence of neandertal ancestry 600,000-400,000ya
  175. Ceprano
    a site in central Italy a well preserved cranium, must be the best evidence of an erectus in Europe 900,000 -800,000 ya
  176. Phillip Rightmire
  177. Bernard Wood
    suggested that the name homo ergaster be used for African remains and that erectus
  178. Milfred Wolpoff
    did the multi regional model
  179. Olorgesallie
  180. Sexual Division of Labor
  181. Lower Pleistocene
    Here we report the discovery of a new late Lower Pleistocene site named Vallparadís (Barcelona, Spain) that produced a rich archeological and paleontological sequence dated from the upper boundary of the Jaramillo subchron to the early Middle Pleistocene.
  182. Middle Pleistocene
    the portion of the Pleistocene epoch beginning 780,000ya -125,000
  183. Upper Pleistocene
    is a cultural period showing innovations in technology, development of more sophisticated art, and very elaborate burials rich in grave goods.
  184. glaciations
    climatic intervals when continental ice sheets cover much of the northern continents
  185. interglacials
    climatic intervals when continental ice sheets retrieve, eventually becoming small
  186. Olduwan
    small flake tools , 2.5mya homo habilis n sapiens used
  187. Acheulian
    tools that were flaked on both sides, erectus used them and were common in Africa southwest adsia and western europe
  188. Mousterian-Levallois
    this industry is characterized by larger proportion of flake tools that is found in acheulian tool kits
  189. Chatelperronian
    an industry in Spain, they contain blade tools and are associated with neandertals. 1 stone core= more tools: simple point,complex point, knife, bone needle.
  190. Aurgnacian
    the upper Paliolithic stone tool, industry in Europe. Associated with the Cro-Magnon
  191. Magdalenian
    the upper Paliolithic stone tool, industry in Europe
  192. Kabwe
    site in Broken Hill, Zambia. homo hiedelbergensis, transitional looking fossil
  193. Early Modern Humans
  194. Recent Modern Humans
  195. Cro-Magnon
    site in France, Europe. They found H. sapiens , good example of early modern humans in France 30,000 ya
  196. Skhul
    site in Israel SW Asian H. sapiens, earliest well dated modern human outside Africa 115,000 ya
  197. Qafzeh
    site in Israel, SW Asia , they found homo sapiens, this site shows considerable variation. 110,000ya
  198. Omo
    site in Ethiopia , found homo sapiens, the oldest modern human found anywhere. 195,000ya
  199. Herto
    site in Ethiopia, Africa they found H. Sapiens Idaltu and is best preserved and best dated early modern human from any where. 160,000-154,000 ya
  200. Border Cave
    site in S. Africa , Richard Klein found floresiensis in 1970
  201. Klassies River Mouth
    site in S Africa, Richard Klein found sapien in 1970
  202. Predmosti
  203. Multiregional Model
    made my Milfred Wolpoff, believes in basals->gracile autralopiths->homo habilis-> robust autralopiths the H. sapiens grade 1-4
  204. Partial Replacement Model
    basals->gracile->habilis->erectus->robust->heidelbergensis->sapiens sapiens-> sapiens neandertals by gunter brauer
  205. Complete Replacement Model
    basals->gracile->habilis->erectus->robust->h. heidelbergensis->sapiens->neandertals by chris stringer
  206. Chris Stringer
    did the complete replacement model,
  207. Gunter Brauer
    made the partial replacement model
  208. Mitochondrial Eve
    the DNA passed on by the mother, traces back to Eve
  209. Y- Chromosome Adam
    the DNA passed on by the father traces back to Adam
  210. Kow Swamp
    site in Australia , Alan Thorne found a sapien in 1967.
  211. Ordos
  212. Lake Mungo
  213. Lepito, Portugal
  214. hilltop shelters
    lived on hilltops to protect themselves from predators, so they could have an oversight of everything
  215. cave shelters
    hominins that used caves as shelters for warmth
  216. atalat
    used in open hunting 40kyaspear-thrower is a tool that uses leverage to achieve greater velocity in dart-throwing.
  217. spear
    pole weapon consisting of a shaft, usually of wood, with a pointed head. The head may be simply the sharpened end of the shaft itself
  218. bow and arrow
    was used for open hunting.A bow is a flexible arc that shoots aerodynamic projectiles by means of elastic energy. Essentially, the bow is a form of spring powered by a string or cord. As this string is drawn, energy is stored in the flexible limbs of the bow; the energy is transferred to the arrow when the string is released, projecting it much farther than a weapon could be thrown.
  219. barbed blades
  220. ceramics
  221. metallurgy
  222. band organization
  223. race-ethnicity-ancestry
    scientific importance-forensics, genetic couseling,disease prevention,pharmacology ->genetics:haplogroups and osteology->facial features, long bones, pelvis
  224. continental settlement
    settling in different continents
  225. homo georgicus
    Homo georgicus is a species of Homo that was suggested in 2002 to describe fossil skulls and jaws found inDmanisi, Georgia in 1999 and 2001, which seem intermediate between Homo habilis and H. erectus
  226. homo ergaster
    african representative of the homo erectus. is an extinct chronospecies of Homo that lived in eastern and southern Africa during the earlyPleistocene, about 2.5–1.7 million years ago.
  227. homo erectus
    1.7 mya, are asians, weighed 100+ and were 5'6in. , Post crania- foramen -verticle, spine:s shape, thorax:barrel, arm:short, hands: true opposable, pelvis: square mixed, legs:long, knees:locking, feet:tripod arch. Crania- 700-1250 cc, post orbital construct-moderate, forehead slope- moderate, temp-parietal- moderate, cranial base flexion-moderate, facial prognathism- moderate, vault lateral profile-egg long, low,vault posterior profile: pentagon dentition-
  228. homo antecessor
    fossils found in Atapuerca, Spain. dating from 1.2 million to 800,000 years ago, that was discovered by Eudald Carbonell, Juan Luis Arsuaga and J. M. Bermúdez de Castro. H. antecessor is one of the earliest known human varieties in Europe.
  229. homo heidelbergensis
    crania- brain size 1200cc, post orbital-minor, forhead slope-moderate strong, temp parietal-strong, cranial base flexion strong,vault lateral-egg long low, vault position profile-rounded,facial prognathism-moderate minor. dentition- enamel :thick, dental arcade: v, tooth pattern: omnivore, tooth orientation: verticle , space: anterior<posterior , molar cusps: blunt, canines:blunt, premolars:squared
  230. homo neandertalensis
    Crania- 1500cc, forhead slope:strong, facial prognathism: moderate, nasal area: strong bridge/spine (p) sinus expansion (D), facial lenghts: very strong, cranial-base flexion: strong, vault lateral profile: egg long low Dentition- enamel:thick, dental arcade: v-shaped, toot pattern: omnivore, tooth orientation: vertical, space: anterior<porsterior, molar cusps: bunt, canines: blunt , premolars: squared, tooth size: small Post crania-everything like sapien except no chin thicker jaws , thicker bones and stronger,
  231. homo floresiensis
    they were a smaller version of the erectus and their brains were smaller but they were three times smarter then any other human Crania- moderate prognathism, no chin,300cc, long/low cranial vault egg.
  232. homo sapiens
    Post crania: foramen magnum: vertical, spine: s-shaped, thorax: barrel, arms: short, hands: true opposable, pelvis: square;sexual dimporphism: 100%, legs: long, knees:locking, feet: tripod arch, height: 5'6-5'10 , weight: 180lbs, bone cortices :thin Dentition - enamel:thick , dental arcade: v-shaped, toot pattern- omnivore, tooth orientation-vertical, space: anterior<posterior,molar cusps: blunt, canines: blunt, premolars-squared , tooth size:small Crania - 1100-2000cc forehead slope-strong, nasal area-bridge /spine,facial prognathism: minor , vault lateral profile: globular
  233. ethnicity-race-ancestry
    when ethnicity comes first then it goes into race n its later on affected by ancestry
  234. evolutionary mechanisms
    The elementary process of evolution is considered to be the changes in the frequency of occurrence of alleles in a population. Mutation, which causes the appearance of new alleles or changes the relative frequency of already existing alleles, is one important mechanism by which evolution occurs.
  235. hunting
    hunting animals with their tools
  236. gathering
    gathering like fruits and plants
  237. scavenging
    finding the animals dead , not hunting them but just looking for animals that have been killed by other animals
  238. seasonal rounds
    seasons where they went hunting