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- PERCH: Polio, Echovirus, Rhinovirus, Coxsackie, & HAV. Rhinovirus is the only one that's not considered an "enterovirus."
- +ssRNA. Mild fever, cold, rash, aseptic meningitis (except Rhinovirus & HAV). NAKED RNA viruses!
Picornavirus (+ssRNA). Mild fever, cold, rash... but also hand, foot, & mouth disease.
Picornavirus (+ssRNA). Myocarditis/pericarditis, plus mild fever, cold, rash, aseptic meningitis.
Naked DNA nucleocapsid viruses
PAP: all the P's except Pox (no one wants to see you naked then). Papillomavirus, parvovirus, adenovirus.
Naked RNA nucleocapsid viruses
All of the picornaviruses (PERCH) + reovirus (rotavirus).
"Tzanck goodness I don't have herpes." Tests for the alpha-herpesviruses: HSV-1, HSV-2, VZV. Looks for multinucleated giant cells (b/c viral proteins, at host cell membranes, induce them to fuse).
For EBV mono only (not CMV). Anti-heterophil Ab's cross-react with sheep RBC's & cause them to agglutinate.
A DNA herpesvirus. Mono (but negative Monospot), pneumonia. Most infections asymptomatic -- obviously, worse if you're immunocompromised. Congenital birth defects: microcephaly, seizures. Swollen cells w/"owl's eye" appearance.
Influenza. ssRNA, segmented genome. Major Ag's: 1) Hemagglutinin (binds sialic acid receptors on RBC's & upper respiratory cells, to gain entry for replication); 2) Neuraminidase (cleaves virus progeny so they don't just stay bound to host cells via these sialic acid receptors).
ssRNA, non-segmented. PaRaMyxoviruses: Parainfluenza, RSV, Measles, Mumps. They have fusion protein to make multinucleated giant cells, just like the alpha-herpesviruses (Tzanck test).
Pneumonia, especially in kids <6 months (#1 cause). It's a paramyxovirus (ssRNA).
Pneumonia, croup (upper airway narrowing), URI's in adults. It's a paramyxovirus (ssRNA).
Also called Rubeola. Koplick's spots on buccal mucosa: red, with white & blue in center (policeman licking a lollipop?!). Fever, maculopapular rash that starts at forehead & goes down to toes. Could get pneumonia (rare, immunocompromised) or encephalopathy (SSPE = slow-progressing). Pregnant women: no birth defects (not part of TORCHES), but spontaneous abortion.
A paramyxovirus. POM: parotitis, orchiditis (testes -- very painful swelling, but infertility rare), meningitis (aseptic). Starts off in upper respiratory tract, then disseminates via blood.
Fever Transmitted by Bites (bugs). Arthropod vectors (mosquito & tick). Flaviviruses, togaviruses, & bunyavirus. The first 2 = ss+ linear; bunyavirus = ss - circular.
A subclass of arboviruses. St. Louis encephalitis, dengue fever (painful back, muscles - tropics), yellow fever (jaundice from hepatitis, may see Councilman bodies in liver - Africa), West Nile (meningoencephalitis in elderly & immunocomp, but most infections asymptomatic).
- Think Togo -- he's built like a horse. Eastern, Western, & Venezuelan equine viruses. All cause encephalitis. Arbovirus; +ss linear RNA.
- NOTE: Rubella is also a Togavirus, but not an arbovirus (i.e. it only infects humans).
An arbovirus. ss - circular RNA. CA encephalitis.
A Togavirus (but not an arbovirus, unlike the equine viruses). A TORCH infection -- birth defects of heart, CNS, and eyes. Otherwise, it's pretty mild... "3-day German measles" -- mild fever, rash from head to toe.
A reovirus: double-stranded RNA (linear), segmented. Acute diarrhea, especially in kids: Destroy villae --> dec'd absorption of Na+ & water.
- Rhabdovirus: SS - RNA, linear. All warm-blooded animals can be infected. Prodrome, acute encephalitis (agitation, seizures), brainstem encephalitis (pharyngeal spasm -- foaming at mouth), death (respiratory ctr dysfunction).
- Negri bodies = when neurons develop inclusion bodies from the virus. Bullet-shaped capsid.
Papillomavirus (& specific strains)
It's a DNA virus, circular, naked (no envelope). Strains 6 & 11 = warts; strains 16 & 18 = cervical cancer.
Negative-Stranded RNA Viruses: Mnemonic
- They need their own, RNA-dependent RNA polymerase to make the + strand:
- Always Bring Polymerase Or Fail Replication.
Arenavirus, Bunyavirus, Paramyxovirus, Orthomyxovirus, Filovirus, Rhabdovirus. (Rabies must be in here because it's very negative... mean animals.)
Segmented RNA Viruses: Mnemonic
BOAR (with Boar's Head deli meat, you hope that they segment the animal & don't use all of its parts): Bunyavirus, Orthomyxovirus, Arenavirus, Reovirus.
All of them are neg-stranded RNA (because segmentation is a bad, negative thing!).
SS - Circular RNA viruses
ABCD. Arenavirus (of course, because arenas are circular), Bunyavirus, Delta virus (Hep D).
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