PSY Final

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mef12
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PSY Final
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2011-11-30 14:46:34
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PSY Final
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  1. Wundt
    (Ch. 1)
    • Credited for birth of PSY in 1879
    • Did experiment to measure "atoms of the mind"
    • Used introspection (innier sesations, images and feelings)
  2. Watson
    (Ch. 1)
    • Behavorist
    • 1920-1960 led PSY to dismiss introspection and redefined PSY as the scientific study of observable behavior.
  3. CalkinsPsychologists vs Psychiatrists Correlation
    (Ch. 1)
  4. Experiments
    (Ch. 1)
  5. Neurons
    (Ch. 2)
    a nerve cell' the basic building block of the nervous system
  6. Dendrites
    the neuron's bushy, branching extensions that receive messages and conduct impluses toward the cell body. (axons speak dendrites listen)
  7. Axons
    (Ch. 2)
    the neron's extension that passes messages through its branching terminal fibers that form junctions with other neorons, muscles, or glands. (axons speak dendrites listen)

    can be very long prjecting severl feet through the body
  8. Synapses
    (Ch. 2)
    the junction between the axon tip of the sending neuron and the dendrite or cell body of the receiving neuron. the tiny gap at this junction is calls the synaptic gap or synaptic cleft. named by Sir Charles Sherrington
  9. Neurotransmitters
    (Ch. 2)
    chemical messengers that cross the synaptic gaps between neurons. When released by the sending neuron, neurotransmitters travel across the synapse and bind to the receptor sites on the receiving neuron, thereby influencing whether that neuron will generate a neural impulse.
  10. Sympathetic vs. Parasympathetic
    (Ch. 2)
    Sympathetic: the division of the autonomic nervous system that arouses the body, mobilizing its energy in stressful situations. (makes you ready and alert for a situation by raising heart beat, bp, sugar levels and slows digestion)

    Parasypathetic: the division of the autonomic nervous system that calms the body, conserving its energy. (calms you by decreasing heart beat, bp, sugar levels and slows digestion)

    BOTH work together to keep you in a steady internal state.
  11. Lobes
    (Ch. 2)
    Lobes: geographic subdivisions separated by pominent fissures, or folds.

    • 1. Frontal Lobes
    • 2. Parietal Lobes
    • 3. Occipital Lobes
    • 4. Temporal Lobes
  12. Frontal Lobe
    • portion of the berebral cortex lying just behind the forehead; involved in pseaking and muscle movements and in making plans and judgements
  13. Parietal Lobes
    • portion of the berebral cortex lying at the top of the head and toward the rear; receives sensory input for touch and body position.
  14. Occipital Lobes
    portion of the cerebral cortex lying at the back of the head; includes area that receive information from the visual fields.
  15. Temporal Lobes
    lying roughly above the ears; includes the auditory areas, each receiving information primarily from the opposite ear.
  16. Motor Cortex
    an area at the rear of the frontal loves that controls voluntary movements.
  17. Plasticity
    (Ch. 2)
    the brain's ability to change, especially during childhood, by reprganizing after damage or by building new pathways based on experience.
  18. REM Sleep v. NonREM Sleep
    (Ch.3)
    • rapid eye movement sleep.
    • a recurring sleep stage during which vivid dreams commonlly occur. Also known as paradoxical sleep, because the muscles are relaxed (except for minor twitches) but other body systems are active.
    • Discovered by Eugene Aserinsky in 1952 by watching his son sleep
    • Occurs about an hour after falling asleep. Heart rate rises, breathing becomes rapid and irregular, and every half min or so eyes dart around, genitals are arroused.
    • Brainstem blocks messages from the motor cortex during this time.
    • 20-25% of sleep is REM sleep
  19. Dreams
    (Ch.3)
    a sequence of images, emothions, and thoughts passing through a sleeping person's mind. Dreams are notable for their hallucinatory imagery, dicontinuities, and incongruities, and for the dreamer's delusional acceptance of the content and later difficulties remembering it.
  20. Sleep cycle
    (Ch.3)
    Stage 1: falling asleep with sensation of falling or floatingStage 2: about 20 min after falling asleep (where we spend most sleep)Stages 3&4: last together about 30 min with large slow delta waves (large, slow brain waves associated with deep sleep)**Then we retrace out path but add periods of REM sleep...as night goes on stages 3&4 shorten and REM lengthens**
  21. REM rebound
    (Ch.3)
    the tendency for REM sleep to increase following REM sleep deprivation (created by repeated awakenings during REM sleep)
  22. activation synthesis
    (Ch. 3)
    • Explanation: REM sleep triggers neural activity that evokes random cidual memories which our sleeping brain eaves into stories.
    • Considerations: The brain is weaving the stories, which still tells us something about the dreamer.
  23. Behavior Genetics
    (Ch. 4)
  24. Genome
    (Ch. 4)
  25. Twins -- Identical vs Fraternal
    (Ch. 4)
  26. Temperment
    (Ch. 4)
  27. Natural selection
    (Ch. 4)
  28. Teratogens
    (Ch. 5)
  29. Piaget’s Preoperational Child
    (Ch. 5)
  30. Attachment Patterns
    (Ch. 5)
  31. Parenting styles
    (Ch. 5)
  32. Kohlberg’s theory
    (Ch. 5)
  33. Absolute v Difference Thresholds
    (Ch. 6)
  34. Subliminal Perception
    (Ch. 6)
  35. Sensory Adaptation
    (Ch. 6)
  36. Gestalt principles Laws: incl. proximity, similarity, closure, etc.
    (Ch. 6)
  37. Perceptual Set
    (Ch. 6)
  38. Classical Conditioning: Unconditioned Stimulus and Response/Conditioned Stimulus and Response
    (Ch. 7)
  39. Extinction
    (Ch. 7)
  40. Operant Conditioning: Shaping, Reinforcers (neg v pos)
    (Ch. 7)
  41. Observational Learning: television violence
    (Ch. 7)
  42. magic number 7 +/-2
    (Ch. 8)
  43. serial position effects
    (Ch. 8)
  44. state dependent memory
    (Ch. 8)
  45. context dependent memory
    (Ch. 8)
  46. memory construction (including misinformation, "repression" of vivid memories?)
    (Ch. 8)
  47. heuristics vs algorithms
    (Ch. 9)
  48. confirmation bias
    (Ch. 9)
  49. availability heuristic
    (Ch. 9)
  50. Theories of Intelligence -- Spearman vs Gardner vs Sternberg
    (Ch. 9)
  51. Three motivation theories: Instinct, Drive-reduction, Optimal arousal
    (Ch. 10)
  52. Anorexia vs Bulimia nervosa
    (Ch. 10)
  53. The three theories of emotion: James-Lange vs Cannon-Bard vs Two-factor.
    (Ch. 11)
  54. Lie detectors -- are they reliable?
    (Ch. 11)
  55. Facial feedback
    (Ch. 11)
  56. feel-good, do-good phenomenon
    (Ch. 11)
  57. Selye's General Adaptation Syndrome
    (Ch. 11)
  58. Freud: Three levels of mind (iceberg)
    (Ch. 12)
  59. Freud: three personality structures (id, ego, superego)
    (Ch. 12)
  60. Trait theory-Big Five factors
    (Ch. 12)
  61. Social-Cognitive -- reciprocal determinism, internal vs. external locus of control
    (Ch. 12)
  62. Symptoms of Generalized Anxiety
    (Ch. 13)
  63. Symptoms of Panic
    (Ch. 13)
  64. Symptoms of Phobia
    (Ch. 13)
  65. Symptoms of OCD
    (Ch. 13)
  66. Symptoms of PTSD
    (Ch. 13)
  67. Symptoms of DID
    (Ch. 13)
  68. Symptoms of Antisocial
    (Ch. 13)
    lack of conscious
  69. Symptoms of Major Depressive
    (Ch. 13)
    two or more weeks of seriously deressed moods feeling or worthlessness diminished interest and pleasure
  70. Symptoms of Bipolar
    (Ch. 13)
    same symptoms of depression but also mania, hyperactivity and wildly optimistic impulsive behavior
  71. Symptoms of Schizophrenia
    (Ch. 13)
    • Late adolescence
    • More men than women
    • disorganized and delusional thinking
    • disturved perceptions
    • inappropriate emotions and actions
  72. Psychoanalysis
    (Ch. 14)
    Freud's therapeutic technique. He believe the patient's freee associations, resistances, dreams, and transferences (and the therapist's interpretations of them) release previously repressed feelsings allowing the patient to gain self-insight.
  73. Humanistic (Client-Centered)
    (Ch. 14)
    • perspective that emphasized the growth potential of healthy people and the individulal's potential for personal growth.
    • developed by Carl Rogers
    • therapists uses techniques such as active listening within a genuine, accepting empathic enviroment to facilitate client's growth.
  74. Cognitive
    (Ch. 14)
  75. systematic desensitization (SPECIFIC)
    (Ch. 14)
    a type of exposure therapy that associates a pleasant relaxed state with gradually increasing anxiety-triggering stimuli. COmmonly used to treat phobias.
  76. aversive conditioning (SPECIFIC)
    (Ch. 14)
    a type of counterconditioning that associates an unpleasant state (such as nausea) with an unwanted behavior (such as drinking alcohol)
  77. Fundamental attribution error
    (Ch. 15)
    the tendency for observers, when analyzing another's behavior, to underestimate the impact of the situation and to overestimate the impact of personal disposition.
  78. Cognitive Dissonance
    (Ch. 15)
    • the theory that we act to reduce the dicomfort (dissonance) we feel when two of our thoughts (cognitions) are inconsistent. For example, when our awareness of our attitues and of our actions clash, we can reduce the resulting dissonance by changing our attitudes.
    • Proposed by Leon Festinger
  79. Milgram study on obedience
    (Ch. 15)
  80. Mere exposure effect
    (Ch. 15)
    the phenomenon that reated exposure to novel stimuli increases liking of them
  81. Bystander effect
    (Ch. 15)
    the tendency for any given bystander to be less likely to give aid if other bystanders are present.
  82. Differentiate Mode, Mean, Median, Standard Deviation
    • MODE: the most frequently occurring score(s) in a distribution
    • MEAN: the artithmetic average of a distribution
    • MEDIAN: the middle score in a distribution
    • STANDARD DEVIATION: a computed measure of how much scores vary around the mean score

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