Criminology Final Review 2

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elk5057
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119831
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Criminology Final Review 2
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2011-11-30 13:28:42
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criminology psu final review
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criminology final review
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  1. The gradual process by which a person learns the beliefs, values, and behaviors of society is called?
    socialization
  2. An example of Merton's retreatist would be?
    a homeless person
  3. An example of Merton's rebellion would be?
    a hippie
  4. An example of Merton's innovator would be?
    a drug dealer
  5. The ability of citizens to control or direct the goings on in a neighborhood is known as?
    collective efficacy
  6. Which theorectical perspective best describes the position of Emile Durkheim on deviance and crime?
    functionalist
  7. According to institutionalized anomie theory, what two forces shape crime in the United States?
    pressure to succeed financially and weak socialization
  8. Strain theory is most often associated with which famous sociololgist?
    Robert Merton
  9. A state of affairs in which the norms and values of society are weak and are no longer adequate to control behavior is known as?
    anomie
  10. Criminals who reject all laws and discipline and purposely violate the law without regard for the rightness of the act are known as?
    common criminals
  11. Criminals who are offended by the rules of society and who wish to change those rules for the better are known as?
    altruistic criminals
  12. Attempts to change the content of and individual's thoughts in order to prevent recidivism is known as?
    cognitive restructuring
  13. Accroding to the best estimates, what percentage of the prison population is pscyhopathic?
    15-25%
  14. Treatment that seeks to eliminate links between stimuli and troublesome behaviors is known as?
    aversion therapy
  15. Approximately what percent of variation in antisocial behavior can be exaplined by genetics?
    40%
  16. Criminal activity conducted by any group with some manner of formalized structure that seeks to get money through illegal activities is called?
    organized crime
  17. Secret oaths and norms the govern behavior within organized crime families are called?
    mafia codes
  18. This term refers to company funds siphoned off for personal use by top management at the expense of the institution itself.
    collective embezzlement
  19. The most criminal corporation is..?
    ...Hoffman-LaRoche
  20. Approximately what percentage of households claim to have been the victims of white collar crime in a given year?
    33%
  21. Punishment of white collar criminals by confronting them with hte seriousness of their offense while forgiving them and reintegrating them is called?
    shaming
  22. Which drug has seen an increase in usage among young people in recent years?
    cocaine
  23. The idea that crime results when junkies commit a crime to get their next fix is called?
    the economic-compulsive model
  24. On average, every dollar spent on drug treatment results in how many dollars in crime related savings?
    $7
  25. What piece of federal legislation launched the war on drugs?
    the comprehensive crime control act
  26. The idea that attempts to govern public order offenses such as prostitution creates a number of secondary problems that make crime worse is known as?
    overreach of criminal law
  27. The idea that tolerance of one act of incivility leads to the normatization of incivility such that failure to provide order in one area of a neighborhood eventually leads to the total destruction of that neighborhood is known as the...
    ....broken window hypothesis
  28. Groups that mobilize themselves to force their version of morality on society in the name of concern for societal well-being are called?
    moral entrepreneurs
  29. A professional who is employed to set fire for financial gain is called?
    a hired torch
  30. The fastest growing crime in America is?
    identity theft
  31. The most forged documents are?
    prescriptions
  32. Which type of shoplifter steals to satisfy a specific need, such as hunger?
    episodic shoplifter
  33. Most victims of buglary have incomes under?
    $25,000
  34. What is the difference between robbery and burglary?
    face to face contact
  35. Property crimes account for what percentage of the total crimes committed in the United States?
    75%
  36. What is the most effective form of rehabilitation for most pedophiles?
    neither counseling nor registration are effective
  37. This type of terrorist wants to promote the interests of a particular minority group
    nationalistic terrorist
  38. This type of terrorist directs attacks at people who oppose their particular ideology
    political terrorist
  39. Hate crimes are highest in states that...
    ...identify as liberal
  40. Pedophiles who begin abusing children because of some life stressor are called?
    regressed pedophiles
  41. The idea that a child who is abused, or witnesses abuse as a child is 50% more likely to beome an abuser as an adult is called
    intergenerational transmission of violence
  42. Approxiamtely what percentage of child abuse reports are even substantiated?
    28%
  43. Rape is most likely to occur in...
    ...large cities
  44. Which type of robbery has increased in the last decade?
    bank robberies
  45. According to the feminist argument, one reason that men may rape women is...
    ...to keep women in their place
  46. Of the types of violent crimes, which one has seen the greatest decline in the last decade?
    rape
  47. What percentage of female cohorts typically become life-course persistent offenders?
    7%
  48. Preventing crime through the promotion of prosocial values is known as?
    social learning
  49. Factors such as offense seriousness, recidividism, or use of a weapon thaty play a role in criminal justice decision making are called?
    legal factors
  50. The belief that the law reflects common agreement over the fundamental values held by a society is called?
    consensus model

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