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Negative form development
- Head shake 10-14 months
- "No" is one of the first acquired words
- "No+X" in the 2 word stage
- External negative marker ("No Mommy running" "Not eat cereal")
- Internal negative marker ("Mommy no running" "Me not eating cereal")
- Negation with auxiliaries ("I didn't do it" "I won't tell you")
Question form development
- 1. External question marker ("That horsie?" "What doggie doing?")
- 2. With auxiliaries but no subject/aux inversion in wh- questions ( "Why kitty can't stand up?")
- 3. Subject/aux inversion in wh- questions ("What did you do?")
- probable event strategy
- word order strategy
- Irreversible passives are more easily understood than reversible passives
- Order of mention strategy
Classify sentences by clause structure
- Simple-one main verb
- Compound-Two simple sentences using a conjunction
- Complex-Embedding a dependent clause into an independent clause "Syntax, which refers to blah, is one of several blahs."
- Compound/complex- Combining two complex sentences
Classify sentences by function
- Declarative-"We are learning about syntax."
- Imperative-(Subject can be omitted) "Tell me about syntax."
- Interrogative-Question "What do you think about syntax?"
- Exclamatory-Exclamation "It's syntax!"
Passive and active voice
- Passive-Subject does not perform action. Action is performed on it. Person or thing doing the action usually preced by the word 'by'. "The book was written by Norah."
- Active-"Norah wrote the book."
Reversible and irreversible passives
- Reversible-"The girl was pushed by the boy."
- Irreversible-"The carrot got eaten by the rabbit."
- Decontextualized monologue
- Minimally contains two sequential independent clauses about the same past event
- recounts-past event elicited by an adult who shared the event
- accounts-spontaneously shared experience with a listener who did not share the event
- event casts-current or anticipated event
- stories-self generated fictional narrative or familiar fictionalized stories
narrative development sequence
- Changes over time:
- increased length
- decreased reliance on scripts
- increased reference to cause
- increased reference to mental states
- improved coherence and cohesion
- increased number of story grammar elements
- (4-6 yrs: 7 utterance length in narratives; 7-9 yrs: 12 utterance length in narratives)
most important predictor early in the course of reading development
Word formation processes
- Conversion-take an existing word and use it another way "Can you needle this?" (Sewing) "I sharped them." (pencils)
- Compunding-putting together two or more existing words "Streetlight" "Bookcase"
- Derivation-adding an ending to an already existing word to derive a new word with new meaning ex: teach-->teacher, run-->runner
Story grammar element
- Initiating Event
- Internal Response
- Internal Plan
- developmental dyslexia
- prevalence 5-17%
- equal boy to girl ratio
- phonological deficits not a visual impairment
emergent literacy skills
- phonological awareness
- print concept
- alphabet knowledge
- literate language
-history of reading instruction