Drug Discovery and Development 2

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kaytechiyoko
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119854
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Drug Discovery and Development 2
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2011-11-30 14:34:49
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CHEM341
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drug discovery and development exam 2
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  1. Gleevec is a new drug used in the treatment of chronic myelogenous lukemia (CML). Gleevec binds to the Abl protein and inhibits its activity. Gleevec also shows promise in the treatment of gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GSTs), but has no effect on lung cancer. Which statement is the most consistent with the above information?
    Abl activation is probably one of the genetic changes that results in GSTs.
  2. Cancer is more common in older people because
    They have accumulated more mutations
  3. How did luck play a role in the discovery of the "mustard liquid" chemotherapy drugs?
    Physicians observed that rapidly dividing cells such as bone marrow cells were killed in soldiers exposed to mustard gas in WWI.
  4. The discovery of the mustard liquid drugs would be best described as
    Phenotypic drug discovery
  5. Legislation passed after a legally marketed drug killed 107 people, most of whom were children
    Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act (1938)
  6. The effective dose 50% (ED50) is most closely asociated with a drug's:
    potency
  7. Which of the following metabolically active tissues is the principle organ for drug metabolism?
    Liver
  8. Which of the following statements is not true about cytochrom P450 enzymes?
    They are responsible for the viological activity of early chemotherapy agents.
  9. Which of the following is usually the "goal" of drug metabolism.
    Make a drug more water soluble.
  10. Which of the following do patent examiners not consider when evaluating patentability of a new product or process?
    Will it make money?
  11. Pharmacokinetics considers:
    The way in which the body affects a drug by the processes of absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion.
  12. Most drugs and metabolits are excreted in:
    urine
  13. Who is David Franklin?
    The medical liason at Pfizer who filed the whistleblower lawsuit exposing Pfizer's illegal promotion of Neurontin.
  14. Pharmacoeconomics is used to estimate and compare consts and health-related outcomes for drugs, but this information is typically not considered by the FDA when reviewing a new drug application. T/F
    True
  15. Pharmacodynamics considers
    The effects of the drug on the body and the mode of drug action.
  16. A drug that binds to a cell receptor and causes a direct response is called an
    agonist.
  17. What the body does to a drug is called
    Pharmacokinetics
  18. The most common factor associated with variation in an invididuals's response to a drug is
    genetic variation in enzymes that metabolize drugs.
  19. How does acetaminophen (tylenol) cause toxicity in overdose
    Acetaminophen is metabolized to a toxic metabolite.
  20. In a qui tam action, the citizen who files the law suit is called a/an:
    Relator
  21. HIV is the virus that causes AIDS. In the mid-1990s, researchers discovered an enzyme in HIV called a protease. Once the enzyme's structure was known, researchers began looking for drugs that would fit into the active site and block it. If this strategy for stopping HIV infections were successful, it would be an example of?
    Antagonist
  22. During the early years of cancer research, there were two schools of thought regarding the causes of cancer: 1) that cancer was caused entirely by environmental factors and 2) that cancer was caused by genetic factors. Which is correct?
    Both, most chemical carcinogens function by altering genes.
  23. Pharmacodynamics is defined as
    the effect a drug has on our bodies.
  24. NSAIDs work by
    blocking production of prostaglandins.
  25. Which of the following laws established that drugs should be accurately labeled with contents and dosage
    Pure Food and Drug Act (1906)
  26. Which federal law would a pharmaceutical company be accused of violating if their television advertisement was misleading?
    Food Drug and Cosmetic Act of 1938
  27. Which pharmacoeconomic analysis has the advantage of being the simplest to conduct because the outcomes are ssumed to be equivalent?
    Cost-minimization
  28. Informed consent in clinical trials is important because
    it enables the participant to understand vital information on the proposed trial.
  29. In the U.S. obesity has become a major health policy issue over the past twenty years becasue
    obesity rates have increased greatly in the past twenty years
  30. A law suit brought by a citizen against another citizen or corporation who has defrauded the government is called
    Qui Tam suit
  31. Why are some prescription drugs not available as less expensive generic drugs?
    The prescribed drug may be a "pioneer" drug and the 20-year patent protection period may have not expired.
  32. Which of the following best describes a "fiduciary relationship" such as that between a physician and patient?
    The party who is a fiduciary must avoid any conflict of interest and she must not put her personal interests before those to whom fiduciary obligations are owed.
  33. For intravenour dosages, what is the bioavailability assumed to be?
    100%
  34. The relationship between the amount of a drug taken and the intensity or type of the resulting effect is called the
    dose-response function
  35. During which phase in the development of pharmaceutical drugs is the drug tested on healthy human volunteers to test for toxicity.
    Phase I clinical trials.
  36. Metastatsis, in the context of Cancer, is the process of
    loss of cell adhesion that leads to spread of cancer.
  37. Which of the following is the process of transporting a drug from its administration site to its site of action.
    Distribution
  38. Opiates such as morphine and codeine both contain molecules that are similar to endorphins, the body's "natural painkillers". Opiates like these bind to receptor sites that are keyed to endorphins and trigger similar pain reducing responses. Given these characteristics, both morphine and codeinie would be classified as,
    agonists.
  39. Which of the following statmetns about pharmaceutical sales is true?
    A pharmaceutical firm can only advertise a drug product for indivations approved in the label.
  40. Pharmaceutical companies historically marketed only to doctors. More recently, they have spent millions of dollars to advertise prescription drugs directly to consumers. Which of the following is not a consequence of DTC pharmeceutical advertising.
    DTC advertising can educate patients about the many off-label uses for their medications.
  41. Lisa Simpson identified a drug candidate by testing thousands of compounds in a "chemical library" for activity against the isolated protein target. This approach to drug discovery would best be classified as
    high-throughput screening
  42. A phase II trial is mainly used to determine
    effective dose
  43. Some components in food inhibit one of the major CYP enzymes that metabolize many drugs. This inhibition would result in the following outcome:
    Parent drug concentrations of drugs metabolized by this enzyme are increased dur to the inhibition of the enzyme.
  44. The method of comparing the cosrts and benefits of health care interventions in which benefits are quantified as length and quality of life is:
    a cost-utility analysis.
  45. Probably the most important reason for obesity today in North America is:
    overfeeding and inactivity.
  46. If a company has a patent on a drug that treats a particular disease
    they are the only ones who can sell that drug while the patent is in force.
  47. With prescription drugs there is a trade-off between
    the benefits of motivating innovation with patents (and high prices) and the ability of people to afford those drugs.
  48. When the molecular structures of COX-1 and COX-2 were elucidated, compounds with specific antagonist activity at COX02 were developed. Celecovib and rofecoxib, the first specific COX-2 inhibitors, were developed and tested in animal models. They were found to decrease the inflammatory response in animals without causing adverse effects. The trials of COX-2 inhibitors in animals are examples of
    Pre-clinical studies of efficacy and toxicity.
  49. Which of the following are not typical of a phase I clinical trial
    efficacy testing
  50. In the late 1980's, the United States experienced an epidemic of heroin abusers dying from accidental overdose of a short-acting synthetic opiod agonist, 3-methyl fentanyl, known on the street as China White. This compound was estimated to have 6000 times the potency of morphine. Pharmaceutical fentanyl has 100 times the potency of morphine. Which of the following curves are consistent with this information?
    Potency is how must drug concentration is necessary to cause a response in the body. Meaning, the more potent, the less needed to cause a response.

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