Chem 111 : 7.1-4

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  1. Paramagnetic
    elements/compounds attracted to a magnet due to unpaired electrons
  2. diamagnetic
    substances experience replusion when subjected to a magnetic feild becuase all electrons are paired
  3. aufbau principle
    "building up" proceedure by which elec are assigned to orbitals
  4. elec are assigned to shells in order of _____ ____ ____, making .....
    increasingly higher engergy, making the atom's total energy as low as possible
  5. the subshell energies in a multielectron atom depend on both ...
    "n + l" values (shell plus subshell - the principle and azmurthal quantum numbers)
  6. 2 general rules predict electron arrangement:

    1) electrons are assigned to subshells in order of ____________

    2) for two subshells with the same ___________, electrons are __________
    2 general rules predict electron arrangement:

    • 1) electrons are assigned to subshells in order of increasing "n+l" value
    • 2) for two subshells with the same "n+l" value, electrons are assigned first to the subshell of lower "n"
  7. Effective Nuclear Charge (Z*)
    the average charge experienced by an electron in a multielectron atoms, as modified by the other electrons and the nucleus
  8. Subshell filling order:
    Order of increasing "n + l" value; when two subshells have the same "n+l" value, the subshell of the lower "n" is filled first
  9. grounded state configuration
    electrons found in locations resulting in lowest possible energy
  10. valence electrons
    the outermost and most reactive electrons of an atoms; determine chemical properties
  11. core electrons
    electrons in the atom's completed set of shells (Noble Gas config)
  12. number of valence electrons =
    group #; same group, same valence elec config
  13. Hund's Rule
    the most stable arrangement of electrons is that with the maxium number of unpaired electrons, all with the same spin direction
  14. s-block elements
    valence elec config: ns^1 (1A) or ns^2 (2A)
  15. p-block elements
    ns^2 np^x, where "x" varies 1-6 (3A-8A) and "n" is the period in which the element is located
  16. Transition elements fill the ....
    d subshells
  17. transition elements are proceeded by ______ then the ____
    transition elements are proceeded by ns^2 then the (n-1)d orbitals are filled
  18. elec config for Chromium (Cr_24)
    [Ar] 4s^1 3d^5

    the six valence electrons are spaced through all six orbitals making up the s and d subshell, leaving the single s orbital with one electron
  19. elec config for Copper (Cu_29)
    [Ar] 4s^1 3d^10

    the eleven valence electrons fill the d subshell, leaving the s subshell with one electron
  20. elec config of cations
    elec removed from shell of highest "n" and subshell of max. "l"
  21. elec config of anions (non-metals)
    emulates next closet noble gas config (full orbital shell)
  22. elec config of transition metal ions
    ns elec lost before (n-1)d elec (due to a higher energy)
  23. High energy orbitals are __________ and therefore ______
    High energy orbitals are not stable and therefore electrons are easily removed
Card Set
Chem 111 : 7.1-4
General Chem at UMass Amherst
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