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what do muscle need to move?
muscle need atp for crossbridge movement, Ca2+ reuptake , and for Na+K+ ATPase
__________ in the muscle provides ~10 seconds of quick energy
_____________ (glucose) generates small amount of energy quickly.
____________(fatty acids) is slow, but yields lots of energy
What is fast twitch in muscles?
- anerobic "white"
- large diameter fibers
- Fewer blood vessels
- Little myoglobin
What is fast-twitch oxidative-glycolytic?
What is slow-twitch in muscle?
- small diameter
- many blood vessels
- high myoglobin
What does anerobic training do?
- Increases fat and glycogen stores within muscle
- Increases the activity of Beta-oxidation enzymes
- CHanges the relative composition of muscle fibers
What is oxygen debt?
Continued oxygen consumption after exercise stops
WHat happens during oxygen debt?
- Metabolize lactate
- Restore muscle ATP
- Restore phosphcreatine
- Replenish myoglobin O2
What is VO2max?
is an estimated of the maximum sustained oxygen consumption
What factorial (aerobic) scope?
The ratio of VO2max to oxygen consumption at rest
What usual factorial scope for humans?
What causes an increase of both rate and depth of ventilation during exercise?
- LOW pO2
- LOW pH
- HIGH pCO2
- sensed by the glomus cells
- high [H+] sensed by central chemoreceptor
What does training do to the lactate threshold?
Increase lactate threshold, which is the exercise intensity where lactate will accumulate in the blood
What is the lactate threshold?
- exercise intensity at which lactate starts accumulates in the blood
- Reduces energy production
What factors cause to shift the Hb-O2 curve to the right?
- Increasing pCO2
- Increasing temperature
- Increasing 2,3DPG
- Increased acidity (dcreased pH)
What happens when the Hb-O2 the curve is shifted to the right?
Results in more unloading of oxygen in tissues
During exercise what happens to blood volumes?
It is shunted from the gut and kidneys and perfused to the muscle
What is the equation for cardiac output?
Cardiac output (CO)= (Heart rate [HR])(stroke volume [SV])
What is heart rate equal to?
HR= (SA node rate + autonomic input)
What is stroke volume?
SV=(venous X force of contraction)
What happens to cardiac output during exercise?
INcreases via changes in HR and SV
What is the intrinsic heart rate?
- Caused by a release of parasympathetic inhibition of the sinoatrial node
What cause further increase of bpm greater than 100?
What is mean arterial pressure equal to?
Mean arterial pressure (MAP)= (2/3)(Diastolic) +(1/3)(Systolic)
What is total peripheral resistane equal to?
- total peripheral resistance (TPR) =
- (Mean arterial pressure)/
- (Cardiac output)
What is arteriovenous oxygen difference equal to?
- Arteriovenous oxygen difference =
- (oxygen consumption)/
- (cardiac output)
How is stroke volume increased?
- By increasing the force of contraction
- End-DIastolic volume (venous return)
How is venous return increase?
- By skeletal and respiratory pumps
- Peripheral vasocontriction
What happens to CO and TPR during exercise?
- CO increases
- TPR decreases
During exercise how does MAP increase despite an increase of TPR?
- The motor cotext resets baroreceptor threshold
- Baroreceptor afferents are inhibited
- Muscle chemoreceptor (responding to metabolites) trigger CNS to override the baroreceptor
How does training affect the cardovascular system?
INcreasing cardiac output through effects on stroke volume
What does dynamic exercise lead to?
- Leads to a large left ventricle volume (increasing the venous return)
- Raise lactate threshold
What does isometric exercise lead to?
Increased wall thickness (increased force of contraction)
raise lactate threshold
What does chronic dynamic exercise do to body?
- Can increase HDL:LDL ratio
- Increase HDL
- Decreases LDL
- Lowering resting blood pressure
- Increase maximal oxygen uptake
What can people who excercise regulary do with glucose?
- They can remove glucose from the blood more quickly and with much less insulin (=increased insulin sensitivity) than people who are sedentary
- Thus regular exercise can reduce your risk of developing type II diabetes