The Nervous System

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The Nervous System
2011-11-30 17:21:13
Anatomy Physiology

Chapter 9
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  1. Central Nervous System
    Includes the brain and spinal cord
  2. Peripheral nervous system
    all nerves outside the CNS which includes cranial nerves and spinal nerves.
  3. effector
    any tissue or organ that carries out a nervous system command.
  4. somatic nervous system
    voluntarily and its effectors are skeletal muscles. voluntary control.
  5. autonomic nervous system/visceral nervous system
    controls smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, and glands, which make up most of the soft body organs, the viscera. Involuntary.
  6. ANS: sympathetic nervous system
    Promotes the flight or flight response.
  7. ANS: Parasympathetic nervous system
    Stimulates the activity of the digestive tract
  8. neurons
    nerve cell
  9. dendrites
    neuron fibers that conduct impuleses to the cell body
  10. axons
    neuron fibers that conduct impulses away from the cell body.
  11. White matter
    covered with myelin sheath. found in brain, spinal cord and most nerves throughout the body
  12. sensory neurons/afferent neurons/dorsal
    conduct impulses to the spinal cord and brain
  13. motor neurons/efferent neurons/ventral
    carry impulses from the CNS out ot muscles and glands
  14. Nerve
    A fiber located with the PNS.
  15. Tract
    in the brain and the spinal cord, they conduct impulses to and from the brain.
  16. endoneurium
    around an individual fiber
  17. perineurium
    around a fascicle
  18. epineurium
    around the whole nerve
  19. Mixed nerves
    contain both sensory and motor fibers.
  20. Neuroglia/glial cells
    cells that support and protect the neurons, aid in cell repair, remove pathogens and impurities, regulation composition of fluids around and between cells, nourishment, assist in secretion of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)
  21. Interneurons
    conduct information within CNS
  22. Monoplegia
    paralysis of one limb
  23. diplegia
    paralysis of both upper or both lower limbs
  24. paraplegia
    paralysis of both lower limbs
  25. hemiplegia
    paralysis of one side of the body
  26. tetraplegia or quadriplegia
    paralysis of all four limbs.
  27. receptor of the reflex arc
    the end of a dendrite or some specialized receptor cell, as in a special sense organ, that detects a stimulus.
  28. sensory/afferent neuron of the reflex arc
    a cell that transmits impulses toward the CNS. Sensory impulses enter the dorsal horn of the spinal cord's gray matter.
  29. CNS of the reflex arc
    where impulses are coordinated and a response is organized. One or more inteneurons may carry impulses to and from the brain, may function within the brain, or may distribute impulses to different regions of the spinal cord.
  30. Motor/efferent neuron of the reflex arc
    a cell that carries impulses away from the CNS. Motor impulses leave the cord through the ventral horn of the spinal cord's gray matter.
  31. Effector of the reflex arc
    a muscle or a gland outside the CNS that carries out a response.