19.1 Cattle industry

The flashcards below were created by user XQWCat on FreezingBlue Flashcards.

  1. abomasal displacement (right)
    disease of newly calved cows in which abomasum assumes abnormal position resulting in abdominal distension and loss of appetite
  2. abomasopexy
    fixation of the abomasum by suturing to ventral abdominal wall; used to prevent recurrence of abomasal displacement
  3. abortion
    termination and expulsion on fetus before completion of normal gestation
  4. ad libitum
    at pleasure: used to indicate feeding or supplying water on a free-choice basis
  5. afterbirth
    placental membranes that surround fetus during gestation; usually expelled from uterus directly after parturition
  6. alopecia
    loss of hair
  7. antibiotic
    substance that kills bacteria or prevents their growth
  8. artificial insemination
    act of introducting semen into female's genital tract by use of mechanical methods
  9. bacterin
    preparation administered to develop immunity against bacterial diseases
  10. balling gun
    mechanical device, either metal or plastic, used to pill large animals
  11. barrel
    circumference of abdominal region; used as indication of feed capacity
  12. bloat
    accumulation of gas in rumen of cattle; excess gas is removed by stomach tubing or puncturing abdomen and rumen with trocar and cannula
  13. body capacity
    heart girth and barrel; large heart girth means larger heart and lung and greater feed capacity
  14. bolus
    ball or food or large pill
  15. bovine viral diarrhea (BVD)
    infectious disease of young cattle causing profuse diarrhea
  16. brand
    method of permanently identifying animal by scarring skin on rump; usually performed using hot irons or chemicals
  17. bred
    animal that has been mated and is pregnant; also called "with calf"
  18. breed
    group of animals that are genetically similar in color and conformation so that when bred to each other will produce progeny with same characteristics
  19. brucellosis
    contagious disease of bovine causing abortion late in pregnancy
  20. bull
    mature male bovine, usually used for breeding
  21. butterfat
    fat content of whole milk; rises to top of milk that has not been homogenized
  22. calf
    young bovine, either male or female, usually under 1 year of age
  23. California mastitis test
    test for bovine mastitis; measures number of somatic cells and leukocytes
  24. campylobacteriosis
    bacterial disease of cattle causing abortion and infertility; also called vibriosis
  25. carcass
    after slaughter, dressed (head, blood, hide and offal removed) body of beef animal
  26. casein
    milk protein often used in purified diets
  27. castrate
    to remove testicles from male animal
  28. cattle
    two or more members of genus Bos, regardless of sex or age
  29. chute
    mechanical device used to restrain cattle or make handling easier (as in squeeze chute)
  30. chronic
    condition of long duration
  31. cistern
    collecting basin in udder where milk is secreted before entering teat and being expressed
  32. close breeding
    practice of breeding son to dam, sire to daughter (inbreeding)
  33. Clostridium
    genus of spore-forming, anaerobic bacteria; can cause tetanus, black-leg and entereotoxemia in cattle
  34. cod
    remnants of scrotum of steer; usually filled with fat
  35. colostrum
    first thick, yellowish milklike substance producted by female immediately after parturition; high in protein and antibodies
  36. concentrate
    feed that is high in total digestible nutrients (TDN) and low in fiber and moisture content
  37. conformation
    overall shape and body type (form) of bovine
  38. copulation
    act of mating
  39. corium
    specialized cells that form horns of cattle
  40. cow
    mature female bovine that has given birth and is lactating
  41. cow hocked
    animal whose hocks turn in and rub together, reducing udder capacity
  42. creep feed
    high-energy feed given to calves by means of special feeding panels that allow access to calves but not to adult animals
  43. crest
    caudal region of neck; most prominent on mature male bovine
  44. crossbred
    offspring resulting from mating of two different breeds within same species
  45. cud
    bolus of regurgitated food from stomach (rumen) of bovine
  46. cull
    animal that is usually removed from herd because it does not meet standards of overall herd; unproductive animal
  47. dam
    female bovine who is mother of calf
  48. dehorn
    mechanical removal of horn buttons or horns of bovine
  49. dewlap
    loose skin that covers brisket and portion of neck; mosre prominent on dairy and certain beef cattle
  50. DHIA
    Dairy Herd Improvement Association
  51. dressing percentage
    percentage dressed weight of animal is to live weight
  52. dry
    cow that is not lactating; usually last 60 days of gestation in dairy cows
  53. dual-purpose
    dairy and beef cattle that are bred and used for both milk and meat production
  54. dystocia
    difficult or labored parturition
  55. ear tagging
    placement of tag in ear for identification purposes
  56. extoparasites
    parasites that inhabit external body surfaces
  57. E. coli
    normal inhabitant of intestinal flora; pathogenic form causes epidemic diarrhea in newborn calves
  58. elastrator
    bloodless castration device using small bands
  59. emasculatome
    bloodless castration device that crushes spermatic cord without breaking skin (also called a Burdizzo)
  60. emasculator
    surgical castration instrument that both crushes and cuts spermatic cord
  61. estrous cycle
    recurrent set of physiologic and behavioral changes that take place in female animal from one estrus period to next
  62. estrus
    stage of estrous cycle in which female is receptive to male (heat)
  63. feeder
    beef cattle old and heavy enough to be placed in feed lot to improve carcass quality and yield
  64. fertile
    able to reproduce at regular intervals
  65. finishing
    feeding beef cattle high-quality feed before slaughter to increase carcass quality and yield
  66. foot rot
    bacterial disease characterized by inflammation of interdigital tissue and heel of hoof; also called pododermatitis
  67. freemartin
    heifer calf born twin to bull; usually sterile
  68. free-stall
    open stall system of rearing beef cattle
  69. freshen
    beginning of lactating cycle immediatly after parturition
  70. gestation
    period between conception and parturition
  71. globule
    fat particles that make up butterfat component of milk
  72. heart girth
    circumference around thoracic cavity; measurement of heart and lung capacity; also used as indicator of animal's weight
  73. heat (estrus)
    period of sexual acceptance; female usually stands for service
  74. heifer
    female bovine that is old enough to breed but has not yet calved
  75. hobble
    device placed on caudal aspect of hocks to restrain hind legs of cow and prevent her from kicking while being milked
  76. hormones
    substances produced by ductless glands that have physiologic effect on animal
  77. hybrid
    progeny resulting from mating two different species
  78. hybrid vigor
    increase in vitality resulting from mating of unrelated animals; hybrid offspring usually perform better than either parent
  79. icterus
    presence of bile pigments; jaundice
  80. impaction
    overfilling and plugging of stomach with feed that is exceptionally dry
  81. inbreeding
    mating together of closely related animals
  82. infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR)
    highly contagious repiratory disease of cattle; more prevalent in cattle that are crowded together in feedlots
  83. ingest
    to eat or take in through mouth
  84. ketosis
    disease characterized by accumulation of ketones in blood and tissue; cow has sweet-smelling breath and urine; also called acetonemia
  85. lactation
    period of time cow is producing milk
  86. leptospirosis
    acute infectious disease that causes abortion storms and subacute febrile illness
  87. lymphosarcoma
    most common malignant lumphoid tumor found in cattle; also called bovine leukosis
  88. mammary (milk) veins
    found on ventral underline of cow; carry blood away from udder
  89. marbling
    streaks or lines of fat that are interdispersed throughout lean meat; makes meat tender and juicy
  90. mastitis
    infectious and contagious inflammation of mammary gland (udder)
  91. milk fever
    paralytic disease following parturition associated with lack of calcium in blood
  92. milk solids
    components of milk after all water is removed
  93. milk well
    depression of female bovine's ventral underline where milk veins enter body
  94. monogastric
    having a simple stomach
  95. nurse cow
    cow whose purpose is to nurse multiple calves in addition to its own
  96. nutrient
    substance that nourishes body
  97. offal
    visceral organs and associated tissues removed from carcass of slaughtered animal
  98. open
    not pregnant
  99. oxytocin
    hormone produced by pituitary gland; responsible for milk letdown and uterine contractions
  100. palatability
    relative acceptance of feeds by animals
  101. palpation
    using sense of touch to examine animal
  102. parturition
    process of calving
  103. passive immunity
    transfer of antibodies produced by one animal and given to another; immunity produced is passive and temporary
  104. pasteurize
    process of heating milk to kill pathogenic organisms
  105. pedigree
    written record of animal's ancestral background
  106. pinkeye
    contagious disease of cattle caused by Moraxella bovis; characterized by conjuctivitis, lacrimation, and corneal ulceration and opacity
  107. poll
    top of head between ears
  108. polled
    genetically or naturally hornless
  109. polyestrous
    having more than one estrous cycle per year
  110. prolopsed vagina
    protrusion of vagina resulting from pressure of developing fetus or other cause
  111. proved
    refers to an animal whose ability to transmit traits is known and predictable
  112. puberty
    age at which reproductive organs become functional
  113. purebred
    offspring of two purebred parents; can be registered by breed association
  114. quarter
    term used to specify a particular gland of cow's udder, such as left front quarter or left hind quarter
  115. range
    open area of grazing land where beef cattle harvest natural feed
  116. ration
    amount of food animal eats in 24-hour period
  117. rectal palpation
    method of pregnancy determination in cattle; using rubber or plastic sleeve, hand is inserted into rectum to feel fetus or its associated structures
  118. relacement
    animals that are raised from birth for addition to herd: superior animals are selected and retained for breeding purposes
  119. ringworm
    fungal infection of skin and hair; characterized by thick, round, gray crusted patches over skin surface; hair that is in infected areas fall out or breaks off
  120. rotavirus and corona virus
    viruses that cause diarrhea in young calves
  121. roughage
    feedstuffs that are high in fiber and low in total digestible nutrients (TDN); examples include hay and silage
  122. rumen
    first or large comparment of stomach of ruminant animals; also called fermentation vat
  123. rumenotomy
    surgical incision into the rumen, most often done to remove hardware (nails, wire, etc.) from the reticulum
  124. ruminant
    cud-chewing animal with four-compartment stomach
  125. rumination
    process of regurgitating food (bolus) from rumen for remastication
  126. scours
    profuse diarrhea, most commonly seen in young calves
  127. scrub
    inferior animal
  128. scurs
    underdeveloped horns that are not attached to skull surface
  129. service
    process of breeding cattle
  130. silage
    cattle feed (roughage) produced by fermenting chopped whole corn plants or mixed pasture grasses
  131. sire
    male bovine that is capable of breeding and producing offspring; paternal parent of animal
  132. skim milk
    whole milk that has had butterfat removed
  133. spotter bull
    vasectomized bull used to seek out and mark females that are in estrus
  134. springing
    anatomic changes that indicate that parturition is near
  135. squeeze chute
    restraint device used to effectively restrain cattle so that procedures can be performed
  136. stag
    male bovine castrated after sexual maturity
  137. stanchion
    restraint device that secures cattle around neck
  138. standing heat
    cow or heifer in estrus that will stand to be mounted by bull or another female
  139. steer
    male bovine castrated at young age
  140. strip cup
    metal cup with a black or screened lid; used for detecting mastitis
  141. supernumerary teats
    those in excess of regular number of four teats
  142. supplement
    use of additional high-protein feeds to help improve and balance poorer ration, such as pasture
  143. switch
    distal part of bovine tail, consisting of long, coarse hairs
  144. tattoo
    permanent means of identification of cattle; indelible ink is injected under skin using system of numbers or letters
  145. teaser
    male bovine that is used to seek out females that are in estrus; male is usually vasectomized
  146. traumatic reticulitis
    caused by perforation of reticulum wall by sharp foreign object such as nail, screw, or baling wire; also called hardware disease
  147. trocar and cannula
    instrument used to puncture abdomen and rumen to relieve bloat
  148. udder
    organ of milk production of cow; made up of two mammary glands and four teats
  149. vaccine
    preparation administered to develop immunity against viral diseases
  150. vasectomized
    rendered sterile by removal of portion of cas deferens (in male); vasectomized animal still exhibits libido
  151. veal
    young dairy calf, under 12 weeks of age, kept in dark and fed only milk or milk replacer; used to produce pale, soft and tender carcass
  152. warts
    caused by viruses, multiple papillomas are located usually on head, neck, shoulders, and back, also called papillomatosis
  153. wean
    removal of calf from cow so it can no longer nurse
  154. white muscle disease
    disease of young calves caused by selenium and vitamin E deficiency; usually result of selenuim-deficient diet fed to cow or heifer during or before gestation
  155. whole milk
    milk as it is secreted from udder of cow, without anything removed
  156. yearling
    animal that is approximately 1 year old
  157. Aurochs
    ancestor of cattle, extict as of 400 years ago. 6 feet at withers
  158. Bos taurus
    domestic cattle
  159. Bos indicus
    Zebu cattle
  160. Mavericks
    wild cattle that haven't been branded and never been gathered
  161. Dogie
    a calf with no mother
  162. Ungulate
    mammal with hooves
  163. Gestation
    270-292 days
  164. weaning: dairy and beef
    • dairy 4-7 weeks
    • beef 7 months
  165. pros and cons of natural breeding
    • less labor involved
    • must own bull
  166. advantages of AI
    genetic improvement, rapid proof of sire, availability of sires, danger of bull removed, disease reduction, crossbreeding, improved management
  167. Beef Breeds
    • Angus: Scotland
    • Hereford: both horned and polled
    • Red Poll: dark to light red
    • Shorthorn: horned or polled
    • Texas Longhorn: Spanish, feral for 300 years
    • Brahman: American breed, humped
  168. Dairy Breeds
    • Holstein: black and white, most pounds of milk, 9 out of 10 dairy cows
    • Jersey: smallest, 2nd most popular, highest butterfat
    • Brown Swiss: white to brown, most resilient
    • Guernsey: less feed per pound of milk
    • Ayrshire: both milk and dairy
    • Milking Shorthorn: most versatile, meat and dairy
  169. Bovine estrous cycle
    21 days. Estrus: 6-24 hours, ovulation 24-32 hours after estrus
Card Set
19.1 Cattle industry
19.1 cattle industry
Show Answers