Card Set Information
A & P II
Human somatic cells have _______ autosomes and _____ sex chromosomes.
2 Sex Chromosomes
XY = Male or Female?
XX = Male or Female?
The male & female have a total of ___ chromosomes.
44 autosomes & 2 sex chromosomes
The males sperm when produced are split 50% to contain what?
50 % X chromoses
50 % Y chromosomes
_________ is the process by which sperm & ova produced in the male & female and reduced by half.
Ovaries also act as a _______ gland in producing hormones.
_______ occurs when the gamete cells fuse together and restore the chromosome number to 46.
The fetus sex is determined at ____.
What is an oocyte?
Ovaries produce :
Ooscytes & Hormones
What transports eggs from the ovaries to the uterus?
Where does fetal development occur?
What canal is the fetus delivered through?
The vagina or birth canal
What is the external genitalia of the female called?
What glands produce milk?
Name the layers of the ovaries:
peritoneal membrane covering the ovary (most outer)
for protection on the outside dense connective tissues
contains folliclles with egg/ oocyte cells
provides nutrients via blood vessels & lymphatic tissues (middle)
Where do oocytes develope?
inside the ovarian follicles in the ovaries
What are the 5 stages of ovarian follicles?
Describe the primordial follicle:
tiny ball of Single layer of squamous cells around an oocyte
Describe the Primary follicle :
Many layers of cuboidal granulosa cells around the oocyte
During what phase does and follicle become an endocrine cell?
What do the granulosa cells secrete?
Describe the Secondary Follicle:
Antral cavity filled with antral fluid (or follicular fluid)
Describe the Graffian Follicle:
mature & ready to ovulate the oocyte
Describe the Ovulation follicle:
Follicle ruptures releasing oocyte
What hormone influences the graafian follicle to ovulate?
LH (Leuteninzing Hornone)
What is the Corpus Luteum?
what the empty follicle becomes after ovulation
This is the seond Endocrine gland of the ovarary
What 4 hormones does the corpus luteum secrete:
Name the white scar tissue left after the corpus luteum dies:
What does progesterone do?
completes the preparation of the uterine lining for possible inplantation of oocyte
What do Estrogens do?
work with progesterone to grow & repair uterine lyning
Female sex hormones
What does Relaxin do?
Relaxes the uterine muscles as to not expell the oocyte
What does Inhibin do?
Inhibits the secretion of FSH & LH
from antierior pituitary
How long does the corpus luteum last in a pregnant female?
about 3 months
What is FSH?
Follicle stimulating hormone
______ contain oocytes in various stages.
What follicle (stage) releases an oocyte each month during ovulation?
Graffian or mature
The graafian follicle releases estrogen that functions to :
grow & repair the uterine lining
regulate the monthly cycle
produce the secondary sexual charecteristics
maintain bone & muscle tissue
What is Ooogenesis?
the development of the oocyte inside the ovarian follicle
When does oogenesis start?
durinf fetal life, millions of
are produced by Mitosis,
some degenerate and die (atresia)
During fetal life what do the oocytes develp into?
immature egg cells or Primary Oocytes
How many Primary Oocytes are present @ birth?
200,000 - 2 million
40,000 remian by puberty
How many oocytes mature during a woman's reprodcutive life?
Each month apprioximately how many oocytes become secondary oocytes?
about 20, only one survives to mature and be ovulated from the Graffian follicle
______ is a 4 inch tube that extends from the ovary to uterus.
______ is an open, funnel shaped portion near the ovary.
_____ are moving finger-like processes.
around the ovary, they pick up the egg
______ is a central wide region of the uterine tube.
where sperm finds egg
______ is the narrowest portion of the uterine tube joining the uterus.
____ & ___ move the oocyte along the uterine tube in to the ampulla.
Cilia & peristalsis
Fertilization occurs within what time period following ovulation.
24 - 48 hours
_____ reaches the uterus about 7 days after ovulation.
Zygote (fertilized or not)
The uterus is the site for ____ development or ______ if nothing is implanted.
Describe the uterus:
Subdivided into the Fundus, Body, Cervix
Contains the uterine cavity that is connected to the cervical & vaginal canals
____ is the functional layer of the uterus.
The ____ gland is where the ova is implanted in the uterus.
The functional layer of the uterus is lines with _____ epithelium.
The _____ layer replaces the functional layer each month following menstration.
_____ layer of the uterus is made of 3 layers of smooth muscle. They contribute to contraction of the uterus for birth & menstration.
_____ layer of the uterus covers the entire uterus.
Visceral Peritoneum Membrane
___ is an elastic tube extending from the Cervix to the Vestibule.
What are the finctions of the Vagina?
receives the penis during intercourse
passageway for birth & menstration
Mammary glands are actually modified ____ glands. what do they produce?
milk during lactation
The amount of _______ determines the size of the breast.
Milk-secreteing glands called ______ open by lactiferous ducts at the nipple.
Alveoli open by _____ ducts at the nipple.
_____ is the pigmented area aorund the nipple.
____ ligments suspend the breast from the deep fascia of the pectoral muscle.
Suspensory (Cooper's) ligaments
What does Estrogen do for the mammary glands?
developed the Lactiferous duct system
What do Progesterones do for the mammary gland?
develope the milk-secreteing glands or Alveoli
What do Prolactins do for the mammary gland?
stimulates milk synthesis in the alveoli
What do Oxytocins do for the mammary glands?
stimulates milk EJECTION from the alveoli
Nursing stimulates what endocrine gland to produce oxytocin?
Oxytocin is secreted from where ?
posterior pitutary where it is also stored
What type of muscle tissure is around the alveoli to contract and squueeze milk out?
The milk ejection system works on what type of feedback?
The females monthly hormone cycle involves what glands?
Hypothalmus, Anterior Pituitary, Ovary
What stuctures undergo change in the female during the monthly cycle?
Ovary & Uterus
What changes occure in the Ovarian Cycle?
Follicle Development & after maturation, ovulation
What changes occure in the Uterine monthly cycle?
shedding of the functional layer of the endothelium during menstration
Gonadal Releasing Hormone (GnRD) is secreted by what?
GnRH stimulates what to secrete FSH & LH?
FSH & LH stimulate what cyclic secretion of estrogens & progesterones?
Estrogens & Progesterones from the ovaries drive what change in the uterine cycle?
Granulosa cells secrete what 2 hormones?
Estrogens & Inhibin
What does Inhibin do?
Inhibits the release of FSH, this prevents the cylce from starting over @ that time.
What does increased production of LH do ?
rupture of the Grafian Follicel & release of oocytefrom ovary into the fallopian tube.
Once the oocyte is released from the ovary what picks it up?
Fimbraie of the fallopian tube
What occurs during the Follicular phase of the Ovarian cycle?
Follicular =FHS causes the follicle to grow and mature, the granulosa cells also grow and produce estrogens & Inhibin
What occurs during the Ovulation phase of the Ovarian cycle?
LH causes the Grafian follicle to rupture and release the oocyte
What occurs during the Luteal phase of the Ovarian cycle?
LH develops the Corpus Luteum from the remains of the ruptered Grafian follicle, it secretes mostly progestrone and some estrogens, which prepare the uterine lining for a possible pregnancy