ANT 003

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  1. Trade
    An exchange of property involving interpersonal interaction between two or more parties
  2. Resource Acquisition
    Archaeologists are interested in resource acquisition:

    - Direct Access: Resource procured by the natural primary source

    - Indirect Access: Trade and exchange; resource procured at the source by one group and then transferred via trade/exchange to other groups
  3. Distance Decay
    The further an archaeological site is from the source of a particular raw material the less of that material will be found in the site
  4. Chemical Source Analysis
    • - Studies are used to fingerprint artifacts and determine their place of origin or provenance
    • - XRF- X-Ray Fluorescence
    • - NAA- Neutron Activation Analysis
    • - LA-ICP-MS -Laser Ablation Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry
  5. Settlement Patterns
    -how people used the landscape historically

    Archaeologically we can look at different use of the land or environment. Settlement patern studies try to focus on inter- and intra-site distribution, or where sites are lovated and where activities or artifact use was taking place within the sites.
  6. Hunter-Gatherer Settlement Patterns
    • A. Wandering
    • - generally unstructed
    • - generally found in a relatively uniform environment
    • - activities tend to be similar from location to location
    • - tent to have the same funtional tool kit at each site

    • B. Seasonal Round
    • - people are lovated where energy is most available at any given season of the year
    • - localities typically reused year after year
    • - different functional tool kits are each site
    • - e.g., Netsilk Inuit of the Central Canadian Arctic
  7. Sedentary Settlement Patterns
    • A. Nucleated
    • - settlements that are spatially concentrated
    • - aggregate of settlements constitutes a minimal "functional unit" where all adaptive and/or subsistence activities of the society take place
    • - e.g., Pueblo societies in the American Southwest; within about 400m span you have burial grounds, kivas, storage, living work spaces and argicultural fields

    • B. Dispersed
    • - elements of the community pattern are widely scattered across the landscape
    • - generally the pattern involves scattered residential/agricultural units sharing a common ceremonial center, civic center or some other special purpose center
    • - e.g., Maya (ca. 1500 B.P.); pyramid and trade/markets in center, and residences and agricultural fields dispersed away from center
  8. Sedentary
    more or less permanent habitation in one location and is associated with substantial architecture
  9. Activity Areas
    spatial relation or artifacts within a site, in other words the internal relationships of sites
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ANT 003
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