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2010-03-25 16:41:34
Chapter 4 Human Body

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  1. Abduction
    Movement away from the midline
  2. Accessory Muscles
    found in the neck, chest, and abdomen that can increase the forces of inhalation and exhalation in patients in respitory distress
  3. Anterior
    toward the front of the body
  4. Artery
    muscular blood vessel that carries blood away from the heart
  5. Bilateral
    occuring on both sides
  6. Capillary
    thin-walled vessel that exchange of nutrients and waste products occurs between blood and tissue fluid through diffusion
  7. Cardiac arrest
    cessation of a functional heartbeat
  8. Central
    situated at, or near the center
  9. Diastolic blood pressure
    blood pressure measured during the relaxation phase (diastole) of the heart. The pressure at which the sounds heard through a stethoscope disappear or significantly diminish.
  10. Distal
    farther away from the body
  11. Dorsal
    Toward the back (or ventral) surface
  12. Epiglottis
    Flap of cartilage that covers the larynx during swallowing to prevent food from entering the lungs.
  13. Epinephrine
    hormone secreted by the adrenal glands that increases sympathetic activity throughout the body. Effects include increase in heart rate, force of contraction, bronchodialation, and rate of breathing; increased blood flow to skeletal muscles with decreased flow to other organs. and increased blood glucose. Also called adrenaline.
  14. Extenstion
    Straightening of a joint
  15. Femur
    The thighbone, largest bone of the body.
  16. Flexion
    Bending of a joint
  17. Hypoperfusion
    Decreased blood flow through an organ, as in shock. Prolonged periods of hypoperfusion can lead to permanent dysfunction or death.
  18. Inferior
    towards the feet
  19. Insulin
    hormone produced by the pancreas; necessary for glucose metabolism.
  20. Lateral
    towards the side of the body
  21. Medial
    Toward the midline of the body
  22. Midaxillary
    imaginary line on the body that extends from the armpit down through the lower chest wall.
  23. Midclavicular
    imaginary line on the body that extends from the middle section of the clavicle down through the lower chest wall.
  24. Midline
    imaginary line that divides the body into right and left halves.
  25. Perfusion
    fluid passing through an organ or part of the body. The surrounding and bathing of a tissue or cell with blood or the fluid part of blood.
  26. Peripheral
    away from the center of the body
  27. Posterior
    Structures toward the rear of the body.
  28. Prone
    Lying facedown or on the ventral or anterior surface of the body.
  29. Proximal
    Closer to the trunk
  30. Shock
    results from failure of the circulatory system to perfuse and oxygenate the vital organs of the body adequately.
  31. Superior
    toward the head
  32. Supine
    when person is lying on his or her back
  33. Systolic blood pressure
    blood pressure measured during the contraction (systole) of the heart, noted by the first sound heard through a stethoscope when blood pressure is obtained.
  34. Tidal Volume
    Volume of air inspired and expired during one breath. Normal tidal volume is at rest for an adult about 500mL
  35. Trachea
    hollow tube with several horseshoe shaped rings on the surface that support and provide structure for this portion of the airway. Also called "windpipe".
  36. Vein
    blood vessel that returns blood to the heart
  37. Ventral
    toward the abdomen, or anterior
  38. Vertabrae
    the irregular bones that form the spinal column