A & P Lecture Test 6

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Atljavy8
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A & P Lecture Test 6
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2011-12-02 23:43:35
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Chapter 13 Spinal Cord 15 Integrative Function 16 Autonomic
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Chapter 13 Spinal Cord, Chapter 15 Integrative Function and Chapter 16 Autonomic Function
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  1. What type of nerve is it and what is it's function?

    Cranial Nerve: Olfactory (I)
    Type: Sensory

    Function: Olfaction (smell)
  2. What type of nerve is it and what is it's function?

    Cranial Nerve: Optic (II)
    Type: Sensory

    Function: Vision (sight)
  3. What type of nerve is it and what is it's function?

    Cranial Nerve: Oculomotor (III)
    Type: Motor

    Function: Moves eyeball & eyelid, focuses eye, pupil diameter (does sensation of eyeball proprioception)
  4. What type of nerve is it and what is it's function?

    Cranial Nerve: Trochlear (IV)
    Type: motor

    Function: moves eyeball (& sense of eyeball proprioception)
  5. What type of nerve is it and what is it's function?

    Cranial Nerve: Trigeminal (V)
    Type: Mixed

    Function:

    Motor=muscles of mastication (chewing)

    • 3 Sensory branches:
    • 1.Ophthalmic-touch from scalp to nose
    • 2.Maxillary-touch to nasal mucosa,
    • upper palate
    • 3.Mandibular-touch at anterior 2/3 of
    • tongue, teeth, chin
  6. What type of nerve is it and what is it's function?

    Cranial Nerve: Abducens (VI)
    Type: motor

    Function: moves eyeball (&sense of eyeball proprioception)
  7. What type of nerve is it and what is it's function?

    Cranial Nerve: Facial (VII)
    Type: Mixed

    Function:

    • Motor=muscles of facial expression
    • Sensory=tastbuds of anterior 2/3 of tongue
  8. What type of nerve is it and what is it's function?

    Cranial Nerve: Auditory (VIII)
    Type: Sensory

    Function: hearing & equilibrium
  9. What type of nerve is it and what is it's function?

    Cranial Nerve: Glossopharyngeal (IX)
    Type: Mixed

    Function:

    • Motor=sallowing & saliation
    • Sensory=taste of posterior 1/3 of tongue
  10. What type of nerve is it and what is it's function?

    Cranial Nerve: Vagus (X)
    Type: Mixed

    Function:

    • Motor=viscera of thoracic and abdominal cavities
    • Sensory=proprioception of trunk
  11. What type of nerve is it and what is it's function?

    Cranial Nerve: Spinal Accessory (XI)
    Type: Motor

    Function: voluntary throat muscles for swallowing (proprioception)
  12. What type of nerve is it and what is it's function?

    Cranial Nerve: Hypoglossal (XII)
    Type: Motor

    Function: moves tongue for speech (& sense of proprioception)
  13. Describe the anatomy or function of the following structures of the spinal cord:

    Structure: cervical enlargement
    an enlarge area of the spinal cord to accommodate additional nerves to the upper limbs
  14. Describe the anatomy or function of the following structures of the spinal cord:

    Structure: lumbar enlargement
    an enlarge area of the spinal cord to accommodate additonal nerves to the lower limbs
  15. Describe the anatomy or function of the following structures of the spinal cord:

    Structure: cauda(tail) equine (horse)
    nerves that exit the spinal cord at the sacrum
  16. Describe the anatomy or function of the following structures of the spinal cord:

    Structure: filum(hair) terminale(end)
    connective tissue tat holds th spinal cord to length
  17. Describe the function of the following structures of the spinal cord:

    Structure: central canal
    hole in the center of the spinal cord through which cerbral spinal fluid flows
  18. Describe the function of the following structures of the spinal cord:

    Structure: posterior gray horn
    contains somata of somatic & visceral sensory neurons (sensory nucleus)
  19. Describe the function of the following structures of the spinal cord:

    Structure: lateral gray horn
    contains viseral motor nuclei (lungs, heart)
  20. Describe the function of the following structures of the spinal cord:

    Structure: anterior gray horn
    contains somatic motor nuclei (skeletal)
  21. Describe the function of the following structures of the spinal cord:

    Structure: gray commissures
    contained unmyelinated axons that cross the spinal cord
  22. Describe the function of the following structures of the spinal cord:

    Structure: white commissures
    contained myelinated axons that cross the spinal cord
  23. Describe the function of the following structures of the spinal cord:

    Structure: white columns
    contained myelinated axons that ascend/descend the spinal cord

    (neurons that share common origins & distenations travel thru the same column)
  24. Describe the function of the following structures of the spinal cord:

    Structure: dorsal root
    contains axons of sensory neurons entering the spinal cord
  25. Describe the function of the following structures of the spinal cord:

    Structure: dorsal root ganglion
    contain somata of sensory neurons entering the spinal cord
  26. Describe the function of the following structures of the spinal cord:

    Structure: ventral root
    contain axons of motor neurons exiting the spinal cord
  27. Describe the function of the following structures of the spinal cord:

    Structure: spinal nerve
    31 pairs, all are mixed (sensory & motor)
  28. Epineurium
    covers the entire nerve
  29. perineurium
    divides the nerve into bundles called fascicles
  30. endoneurium
    surrounds individual axons within the fascicles
  31. Sensory Pathways:

    dorsal ramus
    all neurons carry sensory information from the skin, muscles, and viscera of the back enter the spinal nerve through the dorsal ramus.
  32. Sensory Pathways:

    ventral ramus
    all neurons carry sensory information from the skin, muscles, and viscera of the front, sides, and limbs enter the spinal nerve through the ventral ramus.
  33. Sensory Pathways:

    visceral sensory pathway
    all neurons from viscera of the thoracic and abdominopelvic cavities pass through and autonomic nerve, then the white ramus of the rami communicates and then into the spial nerve, the dorsal root (with the soma in the dorsal root ganglion) and then into the visceral sensory nucleus.
  34. Somatic Motor Pathways:

    Dorsal Ramus
    all motor neurons carry somatic motor commands to the skin and muscles of the back leave the spinal nerve and exit through the dorsal ramus.
  35. Somatic Motor Pathways:

    Ventral Ramus
    all motor neurons carrying somatic motor commands to the skin and muscles of the front, sides, and limbs leave teh spinal nerve and exit through the ventral ramus.
  36. Visceral Motor Pathways:

    Rami Communicates:
    are made up of white (myelinated) and the gray (unmyelinated) rami they carry visceral sensory information from teh thoracic and abdominopelvic cavities into the spinal cord. they aslo can carry visceral (autonomic) motor information from the spinal cord to the viscera of the thoracic and abdominal cavities
  37. Visceral Motor Pathways:

    Motor Pathway to Posterior wall viscera:
    motor commands leaving the spinal cord and innervating (communicate) viscera of the posterior body wall exit the visceral motor nucleus in the lateraly gray horn through a myelinated preganglionic fiber and pass out the ventral root and the spinal nerve.
  38. Visceral Motor Pathways:

    Motor Pathway to the Anterior Wall, Lateral Wall, and Limbs
    motor commands leaving the spinal cord and innervating (communicate) viscera of the anterior and lateral body wall or the limbs exit the visceral motor nucleus in the lateral gray horn through a myelinated preganglionic fiber and pass out the ventral root and teh spinal nerve.
  39. Visceral Motor Pathways:

    Motor Pathway to Thoracic Viscera:
    motor commands leaving the spinal cord and innervating (communicate) viscera of the thoracic cavity exit the visceral motor nucleus in the lateral gray horn through a myelinated preganglionic fiber and pass out the ventral root and the spinal nerve.
  40. Visceral Motor Pathways:

    Motor Pathway to the Abdominopelvic Viscera:
    motor commands leaving the spinal cord and innervating (communicate) viscera of the abdominopelvic cavity exit the visceral motor nucleus in the lateral gray horn through a myelinated preganglionic fiber and pass out the ventral root and the spinal nerve.
  41. Nerve Plexuses
    is a network of interwoven nerves that innervate (communicate) a specific region of the body
  42. Plexus:

    Cervical Plexus
    Innervates (communicates) phrenic nerve which innervates the diaphragm.
  43. Plexus:

    Brachial Blexus
    Innervates (communicates) the radial nerve controls extensor muscles and the ulnar nerve innervates the flexor muscles of the forearm.

    remember:

    • E.R.-extension-radial nerve
    • F.U.-flexor-ulnar nerve
  44. Plexuses:

    Lumbar Plexus
    the femoral nerve which innervates the skin of the inner thigh
  45. Plexuses:
    the sciatic nerve innervates some of the thigh and the lower leg.

    the pudendal nerve innervates the anal and urethral sphincters.
  46. Reflexes
    are automatic motor responses to specific stimuli that help maintain homeostasis and protect the body from physical damage
  47. reflex arc
    is the pathway of a neural reflex
  48. What is the 1st of 5 steps of reflexes?
    stimulus/activation of sensory receptor: a receptor (intero- or exteroreceptor) detects a harmful stimulus
  49. What is the 2nd of 5 steps of reflexes?
    activation of sensory neuron: the receptor causes an action potential in the sensory neuron which then passes the information to the CNS through a sensory pathway
  50. What is the 3rd of 5 steps of reflexes?
    information processing: in the CNS the sensory neuron synapses on motor neurons and stimulates them to threshold
  51. What is the 4th of 5 steps of reflexes?
    activation of motor neuron: an action potential in the motor neuron exits the ventral root towards an effector (muscle)
  52. What is the 5th of 5 steps of reflexes?
    response at effector: the motor neuron stimulates an effector (skeletal or smooth muscle) and the appropriate feedback (motor response) is exhibited
  53. Type of reflex:

    innate reflex
    inborn reflexes such as suckling, blinking, chewing
  54. Type of reflex:

    acquired reflexes
    learned reflexes such as walking, balancing, riding a bike
  55. Type of reflex:

    cranial reflexes
    reflexes involving cranial nerves like auditory and visual reflexes
  56. Type of reflex:

    spinal reflexes
    reflexes involving spinal nerves like withdrawal reflexes
  57. Type of reflex:

    somatic reflexes
    reflexes involving skeletal muscles that move the body
  58. Type of reflex:

    visceral reflexes
    reflexes involving smooth or cardiac muscle (autonomic functions)
  59. Integrate
    means to incorporate into a larger unit

    ex. the brain has to take millions of fragments of info, visual, auditory, tactile, and others, and assemble or integrate that information into a large picture.
  60. Stimulus
    any change in the environment
  61. Sensation
    arriving information
  62. Perception
    conscious awareness of a sensation
  63. First Order Neuron
    first order neurons are usually bipolar neurons and extend their axon through the dorsal root and the soma in the dorsal root ganglion. they then synapse on the second order neuron in the appropriate sensory nucleus in the posterior gray horn
  64. Second Order Neuron
    the second order neuron has its soma in the posterior gray horn and extends its axon up the spinal cord through an ascending tract, usually crossing over at some point, and synapsing on the third order neuron in the thalamus.
  65. Third Order Neuron
    the third order neuron has its soma in the thalamus and extends its axon through the cerebral nuclei and synapses on the cerebral cortex, usually in the primary sensory cortex
  66. Ascending tracts
    are all sensory tracts coursing through the spinal cord must go up or ascend the spinal cord toward the brain
  67. In the Neuron First Order where can you find the soma and axon?
    Soma Location: in the dorsal root ganglion

    Axon Location: through the dorsal root
  68. In the Neuron Second Order where can you find the soma and axon?
    Soma Location: the posterior gray horn

    Axon Location: up the spinal cord through an ascending tract
  69. In the Neuron Third Order where can you find the soma and axon?
    Soma Location: the thalamus

    Axon Location: the cerebral nuclei
  70. Upper Motor Neuron
    has its soma in the brain (cerebrum or cerebellum) (usually the primary motor cortex) and extends an axon down the brain stem for cranial nerves, or down the spinal cord to the anterior gray horn for spinal nerves.
  71. Lower Motor Neurons
    has it soma in the anterior gray horn (or medulla for crainal nervs) and extends its axon out the spinal nerve to the appropriate effector (muscle).
  72. How do you determine if the tract is ascending and sensory?
    ascending tracts beging with the word spino-
  73. How do you determine if the tract is descending or motor?
    descending or motor tracts usually end in the word -spinal.
  74. Major tracts of the spinal cord:

    Ascending tracts:

    Lateral and Anterior Spinothalamic Tracts
    extend from various levels of the spinal cord and carry sensations of pain, temperature, and crude touch to the thalamus.
  75. Major tracts of the spinal cord:

    Ascending tracts:

    Posterior & Anterior Spinocerebellar Tracts
    extend from the spinal cord and carry sensations for proprioception to the cerebellum
  76. Major tracts of the spinal cord:

    Descending tracts:

    Lateral and Anterior Spinothalamic Tracts
    extend from the primary motor cortex through the brain stem and to the somatic motor nuclei of the anterior gray horns
  77. Major tracts of the spinal cord:

    Descending tracts:

    Corticobulbar Tracts
    extend from the primary motor cortex out the cranial nerves that control movement of the eye, mandible, face, and some muscles of the neck and pharynx
  78. Major tracts of the spinal cord:

    Descending tracts:

    Vestibulospinal Tracts
    extend from the medulla to the anterior gray horns and regulate involuntary control of balance and muscle tone.
  79. Major tracts of the spinal cord:

    Descending tracts:

    Tectospinal Tracts
    extend from the midbrain (tectum) and extends out specific cranial nerves for eye movement, as well as the anterior gray horns for head, neck and arm movement for visual an dauditory reflexes
  80. Peripheral Nervous System
    carries sensory input to the CNS through the afferent division.
  81. Motor commands
    are carried away from the CNS to the effectors (muscles) by the efferent division of the PNS
  82. How is the efferent division of the PNS is divided?
    into the somatic and autonomic divisions
  83. Somatic division
    is entirely motor and controls conscious voluntary (skeletal) muscle movement.

    somatic motor neurons extend from the anterior gray horns to the skeletal muscle without synapsing on the way.
  84. Autonomic division
    is entirely motor and controls subconscious visceral effectors (smooth muscle of the visceral organs like digestive and urinary systems, and cardiac muscle of the heart)

    Autonomic motor neurons extend from the lateral gray horns through the preganglionic fiber to an autonomic ganglion. at the autonomic ganglion they then synapse on another motor neuron (ganglionic neuron) that extends its postganglionic fiber from the ganglion to the effector (smooth or cardiac muscle)
  85. What are the two divisions of the autonomic nervous system?
    sympathetic (thoracolumbar) and parasympathetic (craniosacral)

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