Organismal Diversity

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acoxy1
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119968
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Organismal Diversity
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2011-12-01 22:53:52
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Bio organismal diversity biology science fungi plants horticulture
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Exam 4
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  1. Fungi have a cell wall composed of ________?
    Chitin
  2. A haploid cell is what?
    Haploid means 1 copy of each chromosome; Fungi are usually haploid.
  3. A dikaryon is what?
    A dikaryon is when each cell has two seperate haplois nuclei in it.
  4. What are multicellular fungi usually composed of ___? A mass of this material is called ____? (AKA mold)
    Thin filaments known as hyphae, a mass of hyphae is known as mycellium, AKA MOLD.
  5. What is a mushroom?
    Mushrooms are the fruting bodies of some fungi, mushrooms are composed of hyphae that are organized into a specific shape.
  6. What is another name for unicellular fungi?
    YEAST
  7. A symbiotic relationship is seen between _______ and photosynthetic algae or cyanobaceteria.
    Lichens
  8. A fungi in a symbiotic relationship with plant roots is _______________
    Mycorrhizae
  9. Cell walls ( which prevent a cell from bursting due to osmotic pressure) are composed of __________ . Of which fungi use ______, plants use _______, and bacteria uses _________.
    Polysaccharides. Fungi use Chitin, Plants use Cellulose, and bacteria uses peptidoglycan.
  10. ______________ within hyphae allow the fungi to exert force and penetrate plant cells and feed on them.
    Osmotic Pressure
  11. Fungi reproduction: Can be Asexual or Sexual. Explain each.
    Asexual - One parent produces spores that are genetically identical to itself.

    Sexual - Two parents combine to form offspring that are genetically different from either parent.
  12. The eukaryotic sex cycle:
    A haploid organism produces gametes (sperm and eggs), which fuse during the process of fertilization to produce a diploid organism. Some cells in the diploid organism undergo meiosis which produces new haploid organisms.
  13. When fungi and two different mating types meet, fuse, they from a ________, which contain two haploid nuclei, one from each parent.
    Dikaryon
  14. What is plasmogamy?
    The process of fusing two haploid cells to form a dikaryon.
  15. What is karyogamy?
    The process of two nuclei of a dikaryon form a single diploid nucleus.
  16. Fungi that don't have any sexual reproduction are called:


    IMPERFECT FUNGI
  17. What are secondary metabolites?
    Produced by Fungi (and plants) to defend themselves. Are not lipids, proteins, carbohydrates, or nucleic acids.
  18. What is most closely related to animals than plants? which protist is most related to fungi?
    Fungi; Nucleariids.
  19. Name and explain five groups of FUNGI.
    • Chytrids: Most basal (oldest) group. live in water, have zoospores with flagella.
    • Zygomycetes: Fairly primitive group that produces large zygospores as part of reproduction.
    • Glomeromycetes: Symbiotic with plant roots. form arbuscular mycorrhizae, part of hyphae are inside plant root cell.
    • Ascomycetes: A large group of fungi that has meiosis and the resulting spores produced inside a sac. Candida is a yeast that affects humans.
    • ---Lichens: Symbiosis with algae and fungi.
    • Basidomycetes: Mushrooms / club shaped cells called basidia.
  20. Most important fungus for humans? (beer and bread)
    Yeast called : Saccharomyces cerevesiae
  21. SPORE-FORMING PLANTS
  22. DNA classification was pioneered by
    WOESE
  23. What is archaeplastida?
    Archaeplastida are protists derived from symbiosis of cyanobacteria by a eukaryote. Acheaplastida consists of red algae, green algae, and plants.
  24. What do viridiplantae consist of?
    Viridiplantae consist of the green algae plus plants
  25. Plant's that have a multicellular embryo growing within the mother's body are __________?
    Embryophytes. Includes all of the land plants...NOT ALGAE. This is the current best definition of "land plants".
  26. What is type of cell can gree algae be?
    Green algae can be unicellular, colonial (a group of identical cells), or multicellular (a group of cells with different cell types that act as a single organism).
  27. What are closely related to plants, live in water, but have complex multicellular bodies? What is the uniqie tough polymer that protects it's spores and seeds? What is the structure used as scaffolding by dividing cells?
    Charophytes are most related to plants. Green algae can be classified as either chlorophytes or charophytes. The tough polymer coating is known as sporopollenin. The scaffolding like structure built on the cell wall is the Phragmoplast.
  28. FOUR main groups of plants:
    • 1. Bryophytes: Mosses, liverworts, and hornworts. Most primitive, no vascular (low to ground).
    • 2. Seedless Vascular Plants: Lycophytes and pterophytes. Have vascular system. Today small--were large.
    • 3. Gymnosperms: Conifers, cycads. First plant to have "naked seed".
    • 4.Aniosperms: Flowering plants. Most present day plants are angiosperms.
  29. PLANT REPRODUCTION
  30. Diploid stage of plant reproduction is the _________.
    Sporophyte. Have special structure called a sporangium , in which meiosis occurs to produce haploid spores.
  31. Spores germinate to form the haploid stage of plant reproduction. The _____________.
    Gametophyte. Have a structure called a gametangium, which produces sperm and eggs(gametes), which are haploid. Combine during fertilization.
  32. How are male and female parts of a plant noted?
    "mega" refers to female...."micro" refers to male.
  33. What process occurs in the chloroplast (or plastid)? In what part of this process is sunlight used to remove elctrons from water, producing oxygen? These electrons are then used to convert CO2 into sugar using the __________ (or carbon fixation)
    Photosynthesis. The process describe doccurs during light reactions. The excited electrons convert CO2 into sugar during the Calvin cycle.
  34. What is cellulose, and what is lignin?
    Cellulose is what plant cell walls are composed of; cell walls are stuffened by lignin.
  35. Where does cell divison occur in a plant?
    Meristems.
  36. What meristems are at the tip of the root? Which are in the stem and roots that produce thickness?
    Apical meristems; Lateral Meristems.
  37. What is vascular tissue reponsible for? What does vascular tissue contain?
    Vascular tissue conducts movements between roots and leaves. It contains Xylem- cells are dead a pull up water from roots--and living Phloem- and conducts sugar to other parts of the plant.
  38. What is the main site of photosynthesis? What coats these? How do gases and water vapor escape or enter these?
    Leaves are the main site for photosynthesis. They are coated in a waxy layer called cuticle. The gases and water vapor escape and enter through opening called stomata.
  39. What are thin narrow leaves, often founf on primitive plants with just a single vascular tissue? Today most plants have _________ instead, containing branched leaf veins.
    Microphylls/ megaphylls
  40. SEED PLANTS:

    Male haploid stage is ________ and female haploid stage is the ___________. The sperm gets to the egg by growing a long ________.
    Pollen. Female is Ovule. Sperm gets there by growing a pollen tube.
  41. What are seeds?
    Multi-cellular diploid organisms that are dormant and able to withstand bad environments.
  42. The first leaves a new plant are known as the _____________.
    Cotyledons
  43. A composite of cellulose fibers and lignin matrix best describes ________. What type do gymnosperms
    Wood. Wood develops from xylem cells whose walls have thickened. Gymnosperms produce softwood.
  44. Where do the seeds devleop in seed plants?
    Gymnosperms evolve before angiosperms and the seeds develop outside of the plant. Angiosperm seeds develop inside an ovary.
  45. 4 Groups of Gymnosperms:
    • 1. Cycads- Dinasaurs
    • 2.Gingkos
    • 3.Gnetophytes- source of ephedrine.
    • 4. Conifers- are trees like pine and fir. Able to thrive in cold environments.
  46. Gymnosperms that have both male and female parts in one plant are called __________. Those that have male and female parts sperate are ____________.
    Monoecious/ Dioecious
  47. Flowers 4 sets of organs:
    • Outermost: Sepal-protect flower bud.
    • Petals- bright in color
    • Stamen- male reproductive part, tops are theAnthers.
    • Innermost are the Carpels- female reproductive parts, located with the ovary.
  48. Flowers are mostly _______. Meaning that they have both male and female parts in the same flower.
    Perfect
  49. Pollination
    Process getting the pollen to the female flower parts.
  50. Pollen is spread by which means:
    Wind in both angiosperms mainly by attracting animals.
  51. Plant species and their pollinating animals _______. Meaning they build adaptations for one another to make pollination successful.
    co-evolve
  52. What is Double Fertilization?
    In angiosperms the pollen grain releases two sperm, one fertilizes agg to create zygote, the second fertilizes cells in ovary to produce endosperms. Endosperm is the nutritive tissue for the seed after it germinates.
  53. Seed is contained with a _____?
    Fruit:::some are fleshy (like apples) other are dry (like peas). Fruits are used to disperse seeds (wind or animals).
  54. 3 major groups of Angiosperms
    • 1. Basal Angiosperms most primitive, ex. water lillies and mognoliids.
    • 2. Monocot large group that contains grasses, orchids and lillies. One cotyledon - parallel veins.
    • 3.Eudicots largest plant group. Two cotyledons, leaves have net-liek veins.
  55. C4 Photosynthesis
    Stomata open at night
  56. Growing point for grasses is below ground.
    The Grain is the fruit of a grass. Bran is outer coat, and germ is the embryo. Endosperm is starch, or flower

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