APK Exam4 Ch16
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Exchange of gases
What structures make up upper airways?
Air passages of head & neck including nasal cavities, oral cavity, pharynx
Connects nasal cavity to oral cavity
Opening to the larynx which is covered by epiglottis
Aka voicebox; air flows thru it to get to lungs
Flap which goes over glottis during swallowing to prevent food entry into larynx
Larynx is at the top of this zone; job is to move air from larynx to site of gas xchg
Conducting zone (conducts air)
Zone of gas xchg
Consists of the airways from pharynx to lungs and includes larynx, conducting zone, respiratory zone
What are the functions of the conducting zone? (2)
- Air passageway (dead space) (primary purpose)
- Increases air temp to level of body temp
- Humidifies air to keep resp tract moist
What are the major structures of the conducting zone?
larynx, trachea, bronchi (1,2,3), and bronchioles (& terminal bronchioles)
How does the amount of cilia change throughout the conducting zone? What about goblet cells?
- Amt of cilia decreases as reach bronchioles
- Goblet cells gradually decrease as move through conducting zone
How does the amount of cartilage change throughout the conducting zone? Smooth muscle?
As go farther down resp tract, amt of cartilage decreases while amt of smooth muscle increases
What is the importance of smooth muscle in resp tract?
Smooth muscle w/lack of cartilage enables them to chg their diamtere which alters resistance to air flow
___ have no cartilage so can collapse, but this is prevented by the presence of elastic fibers
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