Sociology InstantCert Group 1

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Sociology InstantCert Group 1
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  1. _________ is the study of human social behavior--societies, social groups, and the relationships between people.
    Sociology is the study of human social behavior--societies, social groups, and the relationships between people.
  2. ____________ imagination is the ability to see that social forces affect individual lives and that individuals can alter the course of human history.
    Sociological imagination is the ability to see that social forces affect individual lives and that individuals can alter the course of human history.

    • Explanation:
    • Sociological imagination was defined by C. Wright Mills as something we need if we are to understand ourselves in relation to society.
  3. The three sociological perspectives, or paradigms, are ________ interactionism, functionalism, and conflict theory.
    The three sociological perspectives, or paradigms, are symbolic interactionism, functionalism, and conflict theory.

    • Explanation:
    • Symbolic interactionism, functionalism, and conflict theory are basically philosophical or theoretical perspectives; each one is a point of view from which a sociologist studies society.
  4. The sociological perspective which focuses on _______ and face-to-face interaction is symbolic interactionism.
    The sociological perspective which focuses on symbols and face-to-face interaction is symbolic interactionism.

    • Explanation:
    • Symbolic interactionism is focused on the process of social interaction and on the meanings that are constructed and reconstructed in that process.
  5. The sociological perspective which focuses on the relationship between different parts of society, where each part contributes to the overall stability of the whole, is _____________.
    The sociological perspective which focuses on the relationship between different parts of society, where each part contributes to the overall stability of the whole, is functionalism.

    • Explanation:
    • Functionalism is based on the writings of Emile Durkheim and Herbert Spencer and is based on looking at things from the perspective that everything, whether apparently good or bad, serves some kind of function.
  6. The ________ theory perspective sees society as characterized by conflict and inequality; it focuses on how the elite control the poor, and the competition for scarce resources.
    The conflict theory perspective sees society as characterized by conflict and inequality; it focuses on how the elite control the poor, and the competition for scarce resources.

    • Explanation:
    • This is known as the conflict theory perspective, and is based on the work of Coser, Dahrendorf, and Mills.
  7. ____________ methods of research are primarily used in the natural sciences, but are also used by some sociologists. They make use of statistical and other math-based techniques to form conclusions from their observations.
    Quantitative methods of research are primarily used in the natural sciences, but are also used by some sociologists. They make use of statistical and other math-based techniques to form conclusions from their observations.

    • Explanation:
    • Quantitative methods are designed to achieve precision, in contrast to qualitative methods, which rely on personal observation and description to form conclusions, and lack the same level of precision.
  8. Qualitative methods of research rely on ________ observation and description to form conclusions on behavior.
    Qualitative methods of research rely on personal observation and description to form conclusions on behavior.

    • Explanation:
    • Qualitative methods of research are not exact science like quantitative methods, which are based on statistics and math.
  9. The most commonly used method of observation by sociologists is the ______ method, which involves asking the subjects of the study questions.
    The most commonly used method of observation by sociologists is the survey method, which involves asking the subjects of the study questions.

    • Explanation:
    • This is the survey method, and involves either interviewing the subjects, or having them fill out a survey.
  10. Unless the number of subjects being studied is small, not ________ is approached in a survey--a representative sample is selected.
    Unless the number of subjects being studied is small, not everyone is approached in a survey--a representative sample is selected.

    • Explanation:
    • A representative sample is a portion of the subject population which represents the whole. It involves randomly choosing subjects so that everyone has an equal chance of being selected.
  11. __________ sampling uses differences which exist in a subject population, such as gender, as the basis for selecting, instead of doing a straight random selection.
    Stratified sampling uses differences which exist in a subject population, such as gender, as the basis for selecting, instead of doing a straight random selection.

    • Explanation:
    • For example, if a population is divided into blue-collar and white-collar workers, the researcher might choose to select a certain number of each based on what proportion of the total population they make up, instead of choosing a completely random mix.
  12. ____________ is the study of populations and their characteristics.
    Demographics is the study of populations and their characteristics.

    • Explanation:
    • Sociologists categorize people based on age, gender, education, occupation, income, family background, etc
  13. The Hawthorne effect is where subjects of a study change their behavior if they ____ they are being studied.
    The Hawthorne effect is where subjects of a study change their behavior if they know they are being studied.

    • Explanation:
    • Subjects in a study at the Hawthorne Plant of Western Electric Company who hadn't been subject to any changes improved their performance in the presence of researchers
  14. Physically __________ people are perceived as having more positive characteristics, such as kindness, sociability, honesty, etc. This is an example of the halo effect.
    Physically attractive people are perceived as having more positive characteristics, such as kindness, sociability, honesty, etc. This is an example of the halo effect.

    • Explanation:
    • The halo effect occurs when people become stereotyped based on earlier impressions and these impressions color future events. It can be positive or negative.
  15. In an experiment, the control group is kept under normal conditions, and the ____________ group is subject to a particular condition.
    In an experiment, the control group is kept under normal conditions, and the experimental group is subject to a particular condition.

    • Explanation:
    • The point is to see the effect of the condition on the experimental group, and compare it to the group which hasn't experienced the condition.
  16. Sociologists use the term ___________ variable instead of "cause" and dependent variable instead of "effect".
    Sociologists use the term independent variable instead of "cause" and dependent variable instead of "effect".

    • Explanation:
    • An independent variable is one that produces an effect on another variable. The variable affected is dependent. These variable change based on context. For example in a study of poverty, hunger may be a dependent variable (poverty causes hunger). While in a study of crime, hunger could be a independent variable (hunger causes crime).
  17. ______________ adopted a functional approach to his study of religion, stating that it served the function of acting as a source of solidarity and identification for the individuals within a society.
    Emile Durkheim adopted a functional approach to his study of religion, stating that it served the function of acting as a source of solidarity and identification for the individuals within a society.

    • Explanation:
    • The functionalist perspective sees each aspect of society as interdependent and serving some kind of function. This approach stresses practicality, purpose, and utility.
  18. ___________ observation is where the subjects are observed from a distance--normally the subjects do not know they are being observed, and the researcher is not directly involved with them.
    Unobtrusive observation is where the subjects are observed from a distance--normally the subjects do not know they are being observed, and the researcher is not directly involved with them.

    • Explanation:
    • This is in contrast to participant observation, where the researcher joins the group of subjects, or participates in the activity being observed.
  19. Secondary analysis is where a researcher studies ___ records and documents in an attempt to discover something new, instead of going out and collecting his own data.
    Secondary analysis is where a researcher studies old records and documents in an attempt to discover something new, instead of going out and collecting his own data.

    NE
  20. Ethical problems are concerns such as "could the results of this research be used in harmful ways," "is the _______ of the subjects being invaded," or "should subjects know they are being studied?"
    Ethical problems are concerns such as "could the results of this research be used in harmful ways," "is the privacy of the subjects being invaded," or "should subjects know they are being studied?"

    NE
  21. Socialization is the process whereby people become ______ beings or learn to take part in new social situations.
    Socialization is the process whereby people become social beings or learn to take part in new social situations.

    • Explanation:
    • There are two types--primary and secondary forms.
  22. Primary socialization is the socialization which takes a child from _____ to the point where he is a member of society as a social being.
    Primary socialization is the socialization which takes a child from birth to the point where he is a member of society as a social being.

    • Explanation:
    • What follows is secondary socialization, which is the subsequent socialization which an already socialized person experiences.
  23. Children draw on their parents' experiences to learn about their possible future, this is an example of ____________ socialization.
    Children draw on their parents' experiences to learn about their possible future, this is an example of anticipatory socialization.

    • Explanation:
    • Anticipatory socialization occurs in advance of playing an actual role. We rehearse for the future by learning something about role requirements and visualize ourselves in the role. For example children play at being students before they go to school. We may practice being grownup, married, having children, holding a job and retiring, before we actually assume those roles.
  24. Erving _______ believed social interaction to be a series of human dramas in which people play roles much as actors do, attempting to control the reactions of others by presenting a certain image of one's self.
    Erving Goffman believed social interaction to be a series of human dramas in which people play roles much as actors do, attempting to control the reactions of others by presenting a certain image of one's self.

    • Explanation:
    • According to Goffman, social life is like a drama or stage play. He called this theory dramaturgy.
  25. According to George Herbert ____, the self develops through three stages: the preparatory stage, the play stage and the game stage.
    According to George Herbert Mead, the self develops through three stages: the preparatory stage, the play stage and the game stage.

    • Explanation:
    • Children imitate others in the preparatory stage, they pretend to take the roles of specific people in the play stage, and they become aware of the expectations of others in the game stage.
  26. For Mead, the process of acting involves the interaction of two basic aspects of the self, the I and the __.
    For Mead, the process of acting involves the interaction of two basic aspects of the self, the I and the Me.

    • Explanation:
    • All human acts begin in the form of the I. The I is the creative aspect, giving acts energy, while the Me focuses on conformity with the expectations of society.
  27. Preventing crime by instilling fear in the general population through the punishment of offenders is known as _______ deterrence.
    Preventing crime by instilling fear in the general population through the punishment of offenders is known as general deterrence.

    • Explanation:
    • Individual deterrence is where the individual offender is discouraged from further crimes through punishment. At the same time, this discourages others from committing those same crimes--this is known as general deterrence.
  28. Generally, white collar crime involves acts that are non-_______.
    Generally, white collar crime involves acts that are non-violent.

    • Explanation:
    • Examples include forgery, fraud, embezzlement and counterfeiting. White collar criminals are often respectable people with no previous criminal record.
  29. Personality is developed through _____________.
    Personality is developed through socialization.

    • Explanation:
    • Socialization allows people to acquire and develop a personality. There have been documented examples in the past of people who grew up with animals in the forest, and did not have a human personality due to the absence of socialization with other humans.
  30. Socialization can be boiled down to the process of "becoming human," or being able to participate in _______.
    Socialization can be boiled down to the process of "becoming human," or being able to participate in society.

    NE
  31. The driving forces behind socialization--the individuals, groups, and institutions which help socialization to take place, are known as socialization ______.
    The driving forces behind socialization--the individuals, groups, and institutions which help socialization to take place, are known as socialization agents.

    • Explanation:
    • Socialization agents include family, friends, peers, school, work, religion, and mass media.
  32. A practice or relationship which is of importance in the life of a community or society is known as an institution, and includes ________ and the family.
    A practice or relationship which is of importance in the life of a community or society is known as an institution, and includes marriage and the family.

    • Explanation:
    • This is one of the definitions of the institution, and two examples are marriage and the family. Another type of institution is an established organization dedicated to education, public service, or culture.
  33. Resocialization is the process of __________ behavioral practices and adopting new ones.
    Resocialization is the process of discarding behavioral practices and adopting new ones.

    • Explanation:
    • Resocialization happens for various reasons throughout life; for example, when one becomes a parent, he/she may have to significantly change some of their behavior.
  34. A total institution is a place of ______ resocialization, where the people confined are cut off from the rest of society.
    A total institution is a place of forced resocialization, where the people confined are cut off from the rest of society.

    • Explanation:
    • Total institutions include places such as prison, mental hospitals, and even the military.
  35. Sigmund Freud developed the idea of psychoanalysis, and believed biological ______ were the primary source of human activity.
    Sigmund Freud developed the idea of psychoanalysis, and believed biological drives were the primary source of human activity.

    • Explanation:
    • He believed that people are ruled by unconscious desires, and through socialization, learn to repress and channel these desires in socially acceptable ways.
  36. According to Sigmund Freud, the id is the reservoir of primitive desires and drives, unaffected by the real world. It is guided by the ________ principle.
    According to Sigmund Freud, the id is the reservoir of primitive desires and drives, unaffected by the real world. It is guided by the pleasure principle.

    • Explanation:
    • The id is the set of biological needs and is governed by the "pleasure principle."
  37. According to Sigmund Freud, the ___ is guided by the "reality principle," and manages the id's impulses to conform to society's standards.
    According to Sigmund Freud, the ego is guided by the "reality principle," and manages the id's impulses to conform to society's standards.

    • Explanation:
    • The ego is the "executive" of the person--it manages the person's functioning.
  38. A ______________ society depends on service industries and high technology.
    A postindustrial society depends on service industries and high technology.

    • Explanation:
    • In a postindustrial society, the relative importance of manufacturing lessens and that of services, information, and research grows--most jobs are knowledge-based or service professions.
  39. According to Sigmund Freud, the ________ represents internalized parents--a conscience.
    According to Sigmund Freud, the superego represents internalized parents--a conscience.

    • Explanation:
    • The superego is the last of the three psychic apparatuses to develop. The three psychic apparatuses are the id, ego, and superego.
  40. _____________________ believed that the self-concept is reevaluated every time we enter a new social situation. He called this process of self-formation the looking-glass self.
    Charles Horton Cooley believed that the self-concept is reevaluated every time we enter a new social situation. He called this process of self-formation the looking-glass self.

    ExplanationThis process has three stages--the end result being that our conception of ourself is based on the judgements of others--other people become our "looking glass" or mirror.
  41. ___________ developed a theory of cognitive development, which he broke down into four stages to describe the changes which occur over time in children's reasoning and understanding.
    Jean Piaget developed a theory of cognitive development, which he broke down into four stages to describe the changes which occur over time in children's reasoning and understanding.

    • Explanation:
    • These stages include the sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operations, and formal operations stages.
  42. In Jean Piaget's cognitive development theory, the ____________ stage is the first stage--infants do not understand cause-and-effect, they only perceive things through the immediate experience of sucking, touching, looking, etc.
    In Jean Piaget's cognitive development theory, the sensorimotor stage is the first stage--infants do not understand cause-and-effect, they only perceive things through the immediate experience of sucking, touching, looking, etc.

    • Explanation:
    • Different children progress through the stages at different rates; the sensorimotor stage is generally associated with the ages 0 to 2 years old.
  43. The functionalist view of ________ as defined by Emile Durkheim sees it as necessary to establish group boundaries--it marks the extremities of acceptable behavior.
    The functionalist view of deviance as defined by Emile Durkheim sees it as necessary to establish group boundaries--it marks the extremities of acceptable behavior.

    • Explanation:
    • Emile Durkheim was known for his functionalist view of deviance, seeing it not necessarily as harmful to society, but stated that a limited amount of crime is necessary and beneficial. His anomie theory proposed that the cause of deviance is a state of normlessness resulting from rapid social change.
  44. In Jean Piaget's theory of cognitive development, the ______________ stage is where a child begins to use language and symbols, and can differentiate fantasy from reality.
    In Jean Piaget's theory of cognitive development, the preoperational stage is where a child begins to use language and symbols, and can differentiate fantasy from reality.

    • Explanation:
    • The preoperational stage is associated with the ages 2 to 7 years.
  45. The concrete operational stage of Piaget's cognitive theory is where children maturely understand ________________, but they cannot conceive of ideas beyond the concrete situation or event.
    The concrete operational stage of Piaget's cognitive theory is where children maturely understand cause-and-effect, but they cannot conceive of ideas beyond the concrete situation or event.

    • Explanation:
    • This is the third stage. It is called the concrete operational stage because the child's thinking is still concrete--he is not yet capable of abstract thought.
  46. Intragenerational mobility occurs during a person's lifetime, and refers to a change in an individual's ______ standing. It is also called career mobility.
    Intragenerational mobility occurs during a person's lifetime, and refers to a change in an individual's social standing. It is also called career mobility.

    • Explanation:
    • This is in contrast to intergenerational mobility, which is a change in social standing across generations--an example is the son of high-school dropout blue collar workers graduating from business school.
  47. The last stage of Piaget's cognitive development theory, the formal operational stage, is where children are capable of highly ________ thought to include logic, deductive reasoning, and classification.
    The last stage of Piaget's cognitive development theory, the formal operational stage, is where children are capable of highly abstract thought to include logic, deductive reasoning, and classification.

    NE
  48. ____________ defined eight stages of psychosocial development.
    Erik Erikson defined eight stages of psychosocial development.

    • Explanation:
    • He defined eight stages and each stage involved a task, or crisis. For example, the first stage involves trust vs mistrust. Later in stage four, the child develops a conception, either one of being inferior, or one of being industrious.
  49. ________ culture refers to objects which people attach meaning to and use.
    Material culture refers to objects which people attach meaning to and use.

    • Explanation:
    • Material culture includes things such as books, furniture, clothes, and even burial sites--basically anything that is material, or physically exists, which people attach meaning to and use.
  50. The beliefs, behaviors, objects, and other characteristics common to the members of a particular group or society makes up their _______.
    The beliefs, behaviors, objects, and other characteristics common to the members of a particular group or society makes up their culture.

    • Explanation:
    • Culture can be split up into material and nonmaterial culture.
  51. Norms are agreed-upon expectations and _____ by which people orient their behavior, and often vary from culture to culture.
    Norms are agreed-upon expectations and rules by which people orient their behavior, and often vary from culture to culture.

    • Explanation:
    • An example of a norm is how Americans typically maintain eye-contact during conversation while Asians often avert their eyes. Norms can be broken down into folkways, mores, taboos, and laws.
  52. Folkways are conventions or _______; they are standards of behavior which members of a society or group expect each other to conform to.
    Folkways are conventions or customs; they are standards of behavior which members of a society or group expect each other to conform to.

    • Explanation;
    • Folkways are socially approved but not morally significant. Not conforming to folkways makes a person seem peculiar or eccentric, but typically does not result in punishment.
  53. _____ are norms of moral and ethical significance, and violation of these would offend most people of a culture.
    Mores are norms of moral and ethical significance, and violation of these would offend most people of a culture.

    • Explanation:
    • Violation of a culture's mores would result in strong criticism or even punishment.
  54. ______ are norms which are absolutely forbidden by the culture.
    Taboos are norms which are absolutely forbidden by the culture.

    • Explanation:
    • An example is incest, which is absolutely forbidden in the United States.
  55. _____________ is where a person judges other cultures against the standards of his own culture.
    Ethnocentrism is where a person judges other cultures against the standards of his own culture.

    • Explanation:
    • Ethnocentrism is where a person tends to see his culture's way of doing things as "normal," or even superior. Sociologists try not to be ethnocentric--they want to be objective when studying other cultures.
  56. Cultural relativism is where sociologists try not to let _____________ affect their study of other cultures--they try to stay objective.
    Cultural relativism is where sociologists try not to let ethnocentrism affect their study of other cultures--they try to stay objective.

    • Explanation:
    • Cultural relativism means the sociologist does not impose his own meaning on what is observed, or tries to focus only on the reason the observed element exists.
  57. A __________ is a unique culture or cultural organization within a large culture
    A subculture is a unique culture or cultural organization within a large culture.

    • Explanation:
    • An example is the Amish people, who make up their own subculture within the larger American culture.
  58. A ______________ is a unique culture or cultural organization within a larger culture with values and ways of life which do not conform to the larger culture's norms.
    A counterculture is a unique culture or cultural organization within a larger culture with values and ways of life which do not conform to the larger culture's norms.

    • Explanation:
    • Countercultures, such as the Ku Klux Klan, often engage in unconventional behavior.
  59. ____________ occurs when an immigrant group effectively becomes part of the main culture by gradually adopting the values and culture of the majority of the population.
    Assimilation occurs when an immigrant group effectively becomes part of the main culture by gradually adopting the values and culture of the majority of the population.

    • Explanation:
    • An example of this would be the Irish immigrants to the US. With assimilation, minority groups abandon their behavior to adopt that of the majority
  60. Integration occurs when ethnic minority groups remain ___________, they adapt and conform to a limited number of majority values and behaviors.
    Integration occurs when ethnic minority groups remain distinctive, they adapt and conform to a limited number of majority values and behaviors.

    • Explanation:
    • For example, the minority group may wish to maintain their own identity and religion but will conform to the majority legal system and system of commerce.
  61. The physical absorption of one group by another through _____________ is called amalgamation.
    The physical absorption of one group by another through intermarriage is called amalgamation.

    • Explanation:
    • Amalgamation is the opposite of separation.
  62. Cultural _________ occurs when different groups in a society maintain parts of their distinctive cultures while coexisting peacefully with the majority group.
    Cultural pluralism occurs when different groups in a society maintain parts of their distinctive cultures while coexisting peacefully with the majority group.

    • Explanation:
    • Newcomers to a society conform outwardly to values and norms as a way to adapt. For example, immigrants might learn a new language, use the national currency and obey norms as a way to succeed. However they hold on to parts of their own culture (music and religion for example).

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