H&S, Ch. 6

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H&S, Ch. 6
2011-12-01 02:58:08
psych history systems

psych history & systems
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  1. This term is also called insanity or lunacy; there are two kinds symptoms of: either gross excessiveness or overwhelming deficiency of certain features in an individual’s behavior and experiences

  2. An individual’s persistent, overwhelming anxiety and avoidant behavior
  3. Psychological and physical complaints without an identifiable anatomical defect of physiological malady
  4. The states of human mood considered abnormal; symptoms should be profoundly different from normal mood fluctuations, and such fluctuations should be frequent or long lasting
    Mood disorders
  5. First described in 1874 by William Gull that describes symptoms of deliberate weight loss through self-starvation
  6. The process of identification and categorization of a condition or behavior as a medical disorder requiring medical treatment or intervention
  7. Term used to reflect the competition between psychology and medicine.

    From a psychological standpoint, psychopathology is the branch of psychology concerned with abnormal behavior;
    this is a study of the origin, development, and manisfestation of psychological dysfunctions.

    From the medical standpoint, psychopathology is the branch of medicine dealing with the diagnosis and treatment of mental disorders
  8. The procedure based on comparing clinical observations of a patient’s abnormal symptoms with the reliable data about brain pathology, most likely obtained during the autopsy on a patient’s brain
    Clinical-pathological method
  9. A generational regress in physical and psychological traits
  10. The eclectic conglomerate of intellectuals and health care professionals whose beliefs were driven by a mix of Darwinism, progressivism, social engineering, and unfortunately, prejudice
    Social hygiene movement
  11. A therapeutic principle based on assumption that to return to a nomal mental state, the patient should be given a chance to do it in the atmosphere of compassion and trust. Only then, through learning and trust, he or she could restore the lost qualities of good behavior
    Moral therapy
  12. The study of causes and effects of nervous sleep
  13. The term used to describe children with serious developmental problems identified today as mental retardation
    Feebleminded children
  14. A social movement and therapeutic practice based on psychological assessment and spiritual advice
    Emmanuel Church Healing Movement
  15. Revealed a remarkable connection between brain pathology & psychological functioning

    Showed that the loss of speech, or aphasia, without the paralysis of the organs of speech is tied to lesions of the third frontal convolution of the brain
    Paul Broca
  16. Alienists, medical superintendents, neurologists, & psychiatrists were terms to describe?
  17. Coined the term hysteria

    Wrote & published a book where he described symptoms including muscle spasms, involuntary movements, panic attacks, refusal to eat, stomach disturbances, and immobility without symptoms of muscular atrophy.
    Jean-Martin Charcot
  18. What drug was once considered a recreational product, but gradually earned a negative reputation.

    Journal publications began to warn
    about its harmful effects of habitual use, which could result in a person’s dependency & a host of emotional problems.
  19. At the turn of the 20th century, people believed that this drug could produce nothing more than mild intoxications. However, several reports already suggested harmful effects, including hallucinations, delusions, and depressive
  20. During the 19th century, this term applied to a wide range of symptoms, including severe
    forms of alcoholism, fire setting, compulsive theft, senility, and many others.
  21. This famous case was of a male fr. New Hampshire who suffered fr a severe head trauma in an accidental explosion at the site of his
    work in 9/13/1848.

    A 3-foot-7 in. long tamping iron weighing almost 14 lbs went under his left cheekbone & exited through the top of his head, landing about 90 ft. fr behind him.

    He survived despite his left side of the brain being smashed as a result of the blast. However, his behavior & emotional expressions had changed dramatically.
    Phineas Gage
  22. This gentleman was admitted to Bicetre Hospital
    in Paris the age of 21, lost use of speech at the time.

    He could no longer pronounce 2 or more syllables, reporting it 2x @ a time

    He could hear well, but would usually reply to questions with “tan, tan” accompanied by dynamic gestures

    He acquired no other serious symptoms,
    but yrs later he began to lose movement of his right arm and the lower body & eventually became partly paralyzed & most of his intellectual skills
    were declining

    Dr. Paul Broca saw him shortly after his death in April 1861, & the autopsy revealed that besides other abnormalities in his brain, he had a large cavity the size of a chicken egg in the frontal lobe of the left hemisphere of his brain

    Dr. Broca found strong evidence that the pathology of the frontal lobe was probably the cause of his loss of speech
    "Monsieur Tan" Leborgne
  23. A man of verage intelligence who functioned well in fine reasoning, spoken skills, remembering sounds of letters & geometric figures, & did well in science & history.

    However, had deficiency in reading & spelling abilities; made rampant mistakes in pronouncing sounds & entire words

    Lightner Witmer labeled these symptoms as visual verbal amnesia & he worked w/ this individual by designing a program for him

    The program consisted of weekly visits to his clinic & daily work w/ the individual’s schoolteacher. The goal of the program was to
    teach him to identify words w/out spelling them

    Although he never achieved reading proficiency, by 1903 his reading skills significantly improved
    & he was able to read almost any text
    Charles Gilman
  24. Made the most significant attempt to organize mental illness along the lines of a number of distinct categories

    Offered a classification of mental illness, which included 15 categories or groups

    His classification became the early foundation for the contemporary classifications of mental
    Emil Kraepelin
  25. An influential sociologist & anthropologist who described social & psychological factors influencing suicidal behavior

    Proposed several types of suicide based on social conditions an individual’s responses, thus making suicide a behavioral phenomenon available to scientific investigation
    Emile Durkheim
  26. The following were types of treatments for what?

    Plants, roots, leaves, and other natural substances frequently served as remedies to treat abnormal psychological symptoms

    Ritualistic acts, meditation, & prayer were also common therapeutic methods

    In 1763, French physician Piere Pomme recommended chicken soup & cold baths as remedies against fatigue & emotional emptiness

    Laxatives became a widely
    used prescription against a variety of symptoms

    Some doctors combined cold baths, laxatives, & bloodletting as a way to clean the body of harmful
    elements – whatever they were.

    Many physicians routinely conducted dangerous experiments on their patients, prescribing substances such as opium or morphine

    Lithium was routinely used as treatment for affective disorders, to correct abnormal uric acid levels & treat the symptoms of mania & melancholia
    Mental illness
  27. This individual routinely used lithium in treating affective disorders
    Fritz Lange
  28. A human rights advocate who led a campaign to create civilized conditions of individuals living in mental asylums
    Dorothea Dix
  29. What were the 4 main functions of asylums @ the turn of the century?
    1) Incapacitation

    Asylums served the function of incapacitation

    Asylums incapacitated violent individuals who were considered to be dangerous to self or others, thus providing some relief for families & communities

    However, asylums became a convenient depository for unwanted individuals who were no longer capable of exercising their rights

    2) Isolation

    They isolated individuals who were deemed embarrassing, difficult, or unacceptable, thus creating a societal impression that the problem of the mentally ill has been somehow addressed

    3) Research

    • Asylums provided the opportunity to gather empirical information about mental illness & to
    • conduct experiments on the effectiveness of treatment methods

    Yet of the methods of data collection were often unreliable

    4) Treatment

    Some asylums offered a range of treatment procedures, typically limited to work, exercise, or diet

    Unfortunately, specialists didn’t agree on the major principles & methods of the treatment
  30. A general way of thinking & a social movement based on the deep belief that human beings & their society can be improved through social reform, education, & opportunity available to all