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This term is also called insanity or lunacy; there are two kinds symptoms of: either gross excessiveness or overwhelming deficiency of certain features in an individual’s behavior and experiences
An individual’s persistent, overwhelming anxiety and avoidant behavior
Psychological and physical complaints without an identifiable anatomical defect of physiological malady
The states of human mood considered abnormal; symptoms should be profoundly different from normal mood fluctuations, and such fluctuations should be frequent or long lasting
First described in 1874 by William Gull that describes symptoms of deliberate weight loss through self-starvation
The process of identification and categorization of a condition or behavior as a medical disorder requiring medical treatment or intervention
Term used to reflect the competition between psychology and medicine.
From a psychological standpoint, psychopathology is the branch of psychology concerned with abnormal behavior;
this is a study of the origin, development, and manisfestation of psychological dysfunctions.
From the medical standpoint, psychopathology is the branch of medicine dealing with the diagnosis and treatment of mental disorders
The procedure based on comparing clinical observations of a patient’s abnormal symptoms with the reliable data about brain pathology, most likely obtained during the autopsy on a patient’s brain
A generational regress in physical and psychological traits
The eclectic conglomerate of intellectuals and health care professionals whose beliefs were driven by a mix of Darwinism, progressivism, social engineering, and unfortunately, prejudice
Social hygiene movement
A therapeutic principle based on assumption that to return to a nomal mental state, the patient should be given a chance to do it in the atmosphere of compassion and trust. Only then, through learning and trust, he or she could restore the lost qualities of good behavior
The study of causes and effects of nervous sleep
The term used to describe children with serious developmental problems identified today as mental retardation
A social movement and therapeutic practice based on psychological assessment and spiritual advice
Emmanuel Church Healing Movement
Revealed a remarkable connection between brain pathology & psychological functioning
Showed that the loss of speech, or aphasia, without the paralysis of the organs of speech is tied to lesions of the third frontal convolution of the brain
Alienists, medical superintendents, neurologists, & psychiatrists were terms to describe?
Coined the term hysteria
Wrote & published a book where he described symptoms including muscle spasms, involuntary movements, panic attacks, refusal to eat, stomach disturbances, and immobility without symptoms of muscular atrophy.
What drug was once considered a recreational product, but gradually earned a negative reputation.
Journal publications began to warn
about its harmful effects of habitual use, which could result in a person’s dependency & a host of emotional problems.
At the turn of the 20th century, people believed that this drug could produce nothing more than mild intoxications. However, several reports already suggested harmful effects, including hallucinations, delusions, and depressive
During the 19th century, this term applied to a wide range of symptoms, including severe
forms of alcoholism, fire setting, compulsive theft, senility, and many others.
This famous case was of a male fr. New Hampshire who suffered fr a severe head trauma in an accidental explosion at the site of his
work in 9/13/1848.
A 3-foot-7 in. long tamping iron weighing almost 14 lbs went under his left cheekbone & exited through the top of his head, landing about 90 ft. fr behind him.
He survived despite his left side of the brain being smashed as a result of the blast. However, his behavior & emotional expressions had changed dramatically.
This gentleman was admitted to Bicetre Hospital
in Paris the age of 21, lost use of speech at the time.
He could no longer pronounce 2 or more syllables, reporting it 2x @ a time
He could hear well, but would usually reply to questions with “tan, tan” accompanied by dynamic gestures
He acquired no other serious symptoms,
but yrs later he began to lose movement of his right arm and the lower body & eventually became partly paralyzed & most of his intellectual skills
Dr. Paul Broca saw him shortly after his death in April 1861, & the autopsy revealed that besides other abnormalities in his brain, he had a large cavity the size of a chicken egg in the frontal lobe of the left hemisphere of his brain
Dr. Broca found strong evidence that the pathology of the frontal lobe was probably the cause of his loss of speech
"Monsieur Tan" Leborgne
A man of verage intelligence who functioned well in fine reasoning, spoken skills, remembering sounds of letters & geometric figures, & did well in science & history.
However, had deficiency in reading & spelling abilities; made rampant mistakes in pronouncing sounds & entire words
Lightner Witmer labeled these symptoms as visual verbal amnesia & he worked w/ this individual by designing a program for him
The program consisted of weekly visits to his clinic & daily work w/ the individual’s schoolteacher. The goal of the program was to
teach him to identify words w/out spelling them
Although he never achieved reading proficiency, by 1903 his reading skills significantly improved
& he was able to read almost any text
Made the most significant attempt to organize mental illness along the lines of a number of distinct categories
Offered a classification of mental illness, which included 15 categories or groups
His classification became the early foundation for the contemporary classifications of mental
An influential sociologist & anthropologist who described social & psychological factors influencing suicidal behavior
Proposed several types of suicide based on social conditions an individual’s responses, thus making suicide a behavioral phenomenon available to scientific investigation
The following were types of treatments for what?
Plants, roots, leaves, and other natural substances frequently served as remedies to treat abnormal psychological symptoms
Ritualistic acts, meditation, & prayer were also common therapeutic methods
In 1763, French physician Piere Pomme recommended chicken soup & cold baths as remedies against fatigue & emotional emptiness
Laxatives became a widely
used prescription against a variety of symptoms
Some doctors combined cold baths, laxatives, & bloodletting as a way to clean the body of harmful
elements – whatever they were.
Many physicians routinely conducted dangerous experiments on their patients, prescribing substances such as opium or morphine
Lithium was routinely used as treatment for affective disorders, to correct abnormal uric acid levels & treat the symptoms of mania & melancholia
This individual routinely used lithium in treating affective disorders
A human rights advocate who led a campaign to create civilized conditions of individuals living in mental asylums
What were the 4 main functions of asylums @ the turn of the century?
Asylums served the function of incapacitation
Asylums incapacitated violent individuals who were considered to be dangerous to self or others, thus providing some relief for families & communities
However, asylums became a convenient depository for unwanted individuals who were no longer capable of exercising their rights
They isolated individuals who were deemed embarrassing, difficult, or unacceptable, thus creating a societal impression that the problem of the mentally ill has been somehow addressed
- Asylums provided the opportunity to gather empirical information about mental illness & to
- conduct experiments on the effectiveness of treatment methods
Yet of the methods of data collection were often unreliable
Some asylums offered a range of treatment procedures, typically limited to work, exercise, or diet
Unfortunately, specialists didn’t agree on the major principles & methods of the treatment
A general way of thinking & a social movement based on the deep belief that human beings & their society can be improved through social reform, education, & opportunity available to all