H&S, Ch. 11

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erajoy
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120032
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H&S, Ch. 11
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2011-12-01 04:04:39
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psych history & systems
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  1. In Holt’s system, the response reaction has something to do with the meaning of the situation, that is, the way an animal interprets the situation
    Molar responses
  2. In Tolman’s system, a type of behaviorism involving the idea of purpose or goal
    Purposive or operational behaviorism
  3. In Tolman’s system, internal processing by which an individual can code, store, recall, & decode
    information about particular elements of this person’s experience
    Cognitive map
  4. In Skinner’s system, this is conditioning based on activities producing effects
    Operant conditioning
  5. Conditions involving different rates & times of reinforcement
    Schedules of reinforcement
  6. A branch of psychoanalysis focusing on a wide variety of facts related to a person’s interaction w/ the social environment
    Ego psychology
  7. In Anna Freud’s system, specific unconscious structures that enable an individual to avoid awareness of anxiety-arousing issues
    Defense mechanisms
  8. In Karen Horney’s system, feelings of loneliness, hopelessness, & counterhostility (emotional
    responses to hostile situations)
    Basic anxiety
  9. In Sullivan’s system, various types of awareness related to self seen from different angles:

    An early awareness of self as disapproved by the adults; this awareness is a center for the development of later anxiety
    Bad me
  10. In Sullivan’s system, various types of awareness related to self seen from different angles:

    The child’s awareness of an aspect of self that brings rewards such as approval or kindness form the parents or other adults; this awareness serves a foundation for understanding the whole self as good
    Good me
  11. In Sullivan’s system, various types of awareness related to self seen from different angles:

    Awareness of certain individual features that the child doesn’t want to consider as part of his/her
    life & experience; this awareness is kept out of awareness by pushing it deep into the unconscious
    Not me
  12. In Murray’s system, stories or interpretations projecting fantasy imagery onto an objective stimulus
    Themas
  13. The field examining psychological factors in politics & political behavior
    Political psychology
  14. Became one of the most respected psychologists of the 20th century as a theorist, innovator, & clinical practitioner.

    Believed that children could not explain their psychological problems in the way many adults could

    Focused on the struggle of the ego with the overwhelming demands of the id & other powerful
    restrictions imposed by reality

    The function of the ego is to regulate & defend itself fr these contradictory demands

    Such defense is set to protect a person’s ego against anxiety, shame, or any form of unpleasantness.

    The defense is launched automatically & remains mostly unconscious

    This means that a person’s defenses occur w/out a person’s awareness about them

    Ego defenses can be described as defense mechanisms or specific unconscious structures that enable an individual to avoid awareness of anxiety-arousing issues
    Anna Freud
  15. Prominent psychologist who enriched & expanded the initial ideas of behaviorism

    Was an early follower of Watson’s work, but found many of the original principles of Watson’s
    behaviorism unsatisfactory

    Offered a new set of principles, which he & his new supporters believed represented an
    improvement & strengthening of the original theory

    Labeled a purposive behaviorist & his views were called purposive or operational behaviorism
    Edward Tolman
  16. Recognized the power of unconscious conflicts, their roots in infancy & childhood, & the role
    of the therapist in the treatment of mental illness

    Broadened the traditional understanding of neurosis & considered it a more common phenomenon than most analysts believed

    Neurosis in her view was a general maladjustment between an individual & traumatic events

    Used the term basic anxiety to describe a person’s feelings of loneliness, hopelessness, & counterhostility, which is a person’s emotional response to intimidating situations

    Such negative feelings originate during childhood & are based on the child’s relationships w/ the
    parents

    A person’s fear of becoming helpless or lonely creates anxiety, which may produce abnormal responses, which constitute the foundation for a neurosis

    Focused on broad social & cultural factors affecting the child’s development

    Paid special attention to women & examined problems they faced in society

    Pointed out that many psychological problems relating to women’s self-esteem, confidence, &
    psychological stability are rooted in old customs & societal expectations

    In her view, society encourages women to depend on men & worship their strength & wealth
    Karen Horney
  17. Dedicated his life to the study of brain mechanisms of animal behavior

    His work included research on brain regulations of sensory receptors & the cortical basis of motor
    activities

    Major work was done on the measurement of behavior before & after specific, carefully quantified, induced brain damage in rats

    His main contribution to psychology was his theory about principles of behavioral responses
    Karl Lashley
  18. Asserted that both animals & humans face the consequence of their actions

    People act & then see the results of their deeds

    Insisted that people are misguided in their overconfident belief in freedom

    Argued that the problem was not freedom itself: human cultures in the past had survived without freedom

    The problem is in government institutions that define freedom & make people follow those definitions

    Freedom, in fact, should come from scientists

    Claimed that the alleged freedom that Americans thought they possessed was merely a set of conditioned reactions called consumerism
    --> Consumerism is destructive
    B.F. Skinner
  19. His main research interest was in objective methods of measurement & interpretation of behavior

    Tried to reduce practically every aspect of human existence to mechanical, physical terms.

    Emphasized that the “machine” was a metaphor, yet the basic principles of physics according to
    which machines & human bodies function are the same

    Behavior, from his view, is a process of constant adaptation to environmental conditions
    Clark Hull
  20. Theorized that all people pass through 8 developmental stages that stretch fr birth to death

    In each stage, the ego faces a developmental conflict or crisis

    If the crisis has a positive resolution, the person’s ego is strengthened by gaining greater adaptation

    But if the crisis has a negative resolution, the ego loses strength, which results in poor adaptation

    Defined the healthy or mature personality as one whose ego possesses the 8 virtues—namely, hope, will, purpose, competence, fidelity, love, care, & wisdom

    These virtues emerge in progression, fr a positive resolution at each stage of development

    Psychotherapy, from his view, was to encourage the growth of whatever virtues the person was missing to achieve happiness
    Erik Erikson
  21. A test developed by Henry Murray & Christina Morgan in 1938

    In its original form, contained 19 pictures

    The person undergoing testing is asked to tell a story about each of the pictures

    The pictures were sufficiently vague to leave enough to the imagination of the person taking the test

    Murray’s main idea was that the test taker in the process of picture interpretation would reveal specific psychological needs that are difficult to identify by other methods

    Murray used the term themas to describe stories or interpretations projecting fantasy imagery onto an objective stimulus, such as a picture

    When a person experiences a press (an external influence) on his/her needs, a thema is activated to bring this person satisfaction & the sense of power, affiliation, & achievement

    By studying these themas, a trained psychologist could reveal the true nature of a person’s hopes, wishes, or specific psychological problems
    The Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)
  22. Emphasis on unconscious mechanisms & early childhood experiences.

    Defenses lower anxiety but contribute to inaccurate representations of reality.

    Child develops self-concepts (bad-me; good-me; not-me)
    Harry Stack Sullivan
  23. One of major contributions to psychology was the Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) developed together w/ Christina Morgan.

    His main idea was that the test taker in the process of picture interpretation would reveal specific psychological needs that are difficult to identify by other methods.
    Henry Murray

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