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What are antibiotics used for?
to kill bacteria and ultimately to treat the bacterial infection
What should you do before starting treatment with antibiotics?
Culture & sensitivity of affected part.
What are the 4 different ways to prescribe antibiotics?
- broad spectrum
- narrow spectrum
What is empiric therapy?
treating with antibiotics before identifying the bacteria
What is Prophylactic therapy
Giving an antibiotic to prevent and infection
What is meant by broad spectrum?
effective against several groups of microorganisms. Antibiotics cover a large group of infections
What is meant by narrow spectrum therapy?
effective against a few groups
what is the definition of bactericidal
What is the definition of bacteriostatic
inhibit growth of susceptible bacteria, rather than killing them immediately; will eventually lead to bacterial death
what is a superinfections?
elimination of good and bad bacteria therefore allow other bacteria or fungus to grow
What are the teaching instructions for a patient going home with tetracyclines?
Mechanism of action for Penicillins?
- 1. Interfers with the ability of the bacteria to build cell wall
- 2. prevents bacteria from biosynthesizing
- 3. weaken bacterial cell wall
- 4. cells swell and burst from the osmotic pressure in cell
Mechanism of action for Quinolons
- 1. bacterialcide
- 2. effective against gram negative and some gram positive
- 3. alter DNA of bacteria, causing death
- 4. do not affect human DNA
What is mechanism of action for Sulfonamides
- 1. bacteriostatic
- 2. prevent systhesis folic acid
- 3. does not affect human cell growth
What are teaching and discharge instructions for tetracycline
- 1. Thus, dairy products, antacids, and iron salts reduce absorption of Tetracyclines, except Doxycycline
- 2. Strong affinity for calcium
- 3. Discoloration of permanent teeth and tooth enamel in fetuses and children
- 4. May retard fetal skeletal development if 1st trimester of pregnancy
Tetracycline side effects
- Alteration in intestinal flora may result in:
- - Superinfection (overgrowth of nonsusceptible organisms such as Candida)
- - Diarrhea
- - Pseudomembranous colitis
What do you do before you start antibiotics?
Culture & sensitivity
What do we primarily use Flagyl for?
- 1. Active against anaerobic organisms
- 2. H-Pylori
- 3. Intestinal amebiasis
- 4. Trichomoniasis
- 5. Clostridium difficile
- 6. Bacterial vaginosis
- 7. prophylaxis for colorectal surgery
What are nursing interventions for anti-TB drugs
- Hepatoxicity, headaches, blood dyscriasis, GI distress. STRESS NEED to complete drug therapy.
- Collect sputum specimens in early am, before eating,
- Assess for weight loss.
- Monitor for hepatotoxicity, Jaundice, clay colored stools, dark urine, elevated liver enzymes
What is Amphotericin B given for?
Severly systemic Fungal infections
What is the duration of action for Amphotericin B?
Is Ampotericin B toxic or non-toxic?
How is Ampotericin B administered?
- IV route only
- premedication is sometimes used
What is Ampotericin B contraindicated for?
hepatic or renal disease
What are the side effects and adverse reactoins for Amphotericin B?
- Fever, chills , nausea and vomitin
- Muscle weakness
- Electrolyte imbalances
- Cardiac dysrhythmias and seizures
As a nurse what are you going to assess for first with Amphotericin B?
cardiac dysrhythmias and seizures
What is meant by Peak and Trough?
- Peak= 30-60 min after infused
- Trough= immediately before administration of next dose
What is photosensitivity?
increased sensitivity to the sun and other UV
How is Vancimycin administered?
Know what antiviral are used to treat?
- Hepatitis B
- HIV are viruses
How do viruses replicate?
- inside living cell
- Antivirals inhibit viral replication
Teaching responsibilities for client taking penicillin?
- take the whole prescription
- take with full glass of water
- don't store drugs in sunlight or heat
When taking Sulphanomydes the nurse needs to make sure pt does this ___________, and this ______________
- Stay out of the sun
- drink 2000 mL of water
- if female, use another form of birth control