Card Set Information

2011-12-01 14:28:34
Chemistry Toxicology

Chemistry, Toxicology
Show Answers:

  1. Toxicology
    Study of nature, effects, detection of poisons & treatment of poisoning
  2. Toxin
    Poisonous substance, protein structure, secreted by certain organisms
  3. Toxic
    Harmful, destructive, deadly; poisonous
  4. Toxicant
    Poison/poisonous agent
  5. Toxicity
    Poisons toxic degree
  6. Toxicogenic
    Producing poison or toxic substance
  7. Toxicosis
    Pathological condition from poisoning
  8. Toxin-Antitoxin
    Toxin mixture

    Antitoxin with slight excess of toxin, formerly vaccine
  9. Toxoid
    Toxin that lost toxicity

    Retained capacity to stimulate production of, or combine with, antioxins in immunization
  10. Antidote
    Remedy/agent to counteract effects of poison
  11. Poison
    Substance imperils health/life when absorbed into body

    Causes injury/death, especially by chemical means
  12. Toxin
    Poisonous substance produced by higher plants, animals, pathogenic bacteria that is toxic (poisonous) to humans

    Poison of plant or animal origin

    All toxin are poison, not all poison are toxin
  13. LD50: Median Lethal Dose
    Poison/radiation amount that kills 50% of group administered to

    Dose calculated on amount of material given per gram or kilogram of body weight, or amount per unit of body surface area
  14. MLD: Minimum Lethal Dose
    Smallest does of poison/radiation on record that kills

    Smallest amount given that will result in death
  15. Factors influencing MLD
    • Corpulence
    • Age
    • Health
    • Physical state of poison (solid, liquid, gas)
    • Method of administration
    • Habituation
    • Tolerance
    • Metabolic rate
  16. Habituation
    Habitual exposure will develop tolerance
  17. Acetone
    Fingernail polish remover, dry wash shampoo

    Dimethyl ketone

    Colorless, volatile, flammable liquid, miscible with water, useful solvent, sweet fruity ethereal odor
  18. Alcohols
    Arterial/cavity chemicals

    Methanol - methyl alcohol, wood alcohol, CH3OH
  19. Methanol
    Methyl alcohol, wood alcohol, CH3OH

    Colorless, poisonous liquid, burns with non-luminous flame

    Oxidized in body to formaldehyde

    Highly toxic when induced through digestive tract, causing blindness in low dosees, death in large dose

    Good solvent

    Slight antiseptic/preservative qualities

    Anitfreeze, paint remover, solvent in shllac & varnish, denaturant in denatured alcohol
  20. Alkyl halides
    Chloroform & Carbon tetrachloride
  21. Amaranth
    Red dye #2
  22. Amitrole

    Controls weeds & grasses
  23. Ammonia
    Cleaning agent, neutralize formaldehyde forming urotropin

    Never use with chlorine bleach

    Vinegar mix will neutralize due to acetic acid
  24. Camphor
    Used for scent, cooking ingredient, embalming fluid

    Waxy, white/transparent solid

    Strong aromatic odor, ability to sublimate

    Terpenoid in wood of large evergreen trees and others in laurel family
  25. Cresol
    Lysol - cresols are methyl derivatives of phenol
  26. Dichlorophene & Hexachlorophene
    Used in vitro inhibition of Giardia lamblia & Trichomonas vaginalis
  27. Diethanolamine
    Organic chemical compound, secondary amino and dialcohol

    Chemical variants common ingredients in cosmetics & shampoos (create creamy texture, foaming action)
  28. Diethylformamide
    Colorless liquid, miscible with water, majority of organic liquids

    Common solvent for chemical reactions
  29. Ethyl acetate
    Ester found useful solvent in nail polish remover, model paint, and model airplane glue
  30. Sodium Salt of EDTA
    Antidote for metal poisoning, anticoagulant, ingreadient in variety of detergents
  31. Formaldehyde
    Preservative, in most embalming chemicals

    Gas in pure state, solid in 37% aqueous solution as formalin (use as biological sterilant, preservative, embalming fluid)

    Material in manufacture of plastics like Bakelite, Formica, & Melamine; component of adhesives in bind plywood, part of foam insulation
  32. Formic acid
    Methanoic acid - oxidation product of formaldehyde

    Naturally in venom of bee and ant stings
  33. Glutaraldehyde
    5 carbon dialdehyde
  34. Glycols
    Active ingredient in antifreeze
  35. Hypochlorites
    OC1 - Bleaches like Sodium Hypochlorite NaOC1
  36. Isobytane
    Known as Tertiary butane

    Methylpropane and/or 2 - methyl propane - CH3CH(CH3)CH3 (gas in lighters)
  37. Methyl ethyl ketone
    Known as Butanone

    Organic solvent similar to acetone with 4 carbons
  38. Mineral Spirits
    Solvent, cleaning solution
  39. Nitrocellulose
    Historically "gun cotton", was used in immobilize proteins due to nonspecific affinity for amino acids

    Due to explosive nature all but disappeared from use
  40. Orthodichlorobenzene
    Spot remover
  41. Oxalic acid
    Monounsaturated omega - 9 fatty acid in various animal & vegtable sources

    Hinder progression of ALD or Adrenoleukodystrophy (fatal disease affects brain and adrenal gland)
  42. Paradichlorobenzene
    Mold inhibitor
  43. Paraformaldehyde
    Solid form of formaldehyde
  44. Phenol/phenolic compounds
    Jaundice fluids

    Characteristic odor, dangerous due to rapid corrosive action on tissues

    Effective as bacteriostatic agent (when properly diluted)
  45. Plaster of Paris
    Active ingredient of hardening compounds
  46. Propane
    In gas torches, lighters
  47. Quartz
    Known as silica

    Inhalation can lead to silicosis, bronchitis or cancer (dust lodged in lungs & continuously irritates them, reducing lung capacities)
  48. Quaternary ammonium compounds
    Surface active agents, cleansers

    Soaps will neutralize quat
  49. Talc
    Mineral composed of hydrated magnesium silicate (quartz)

    Widely used substance known as talcum powder
  50. Toluene
    Known as methylbenzene or phenylmethane

    Clear, water insoluble liquid with typical smell of paint thinners, aromatic hydrocarbon widely used as solvent
  51. Benzene
    Volatile liquid, immiscible (NOT) with water, able to dissolve fats, used as solvent (cleaning fluid)

    Used as synthesis of innumerable dyes & drugs
  52. Chloroform
    heavy, clear, colorless liquid, strong ether like odor, formed by action of chlorinated lime on methyl alcohol

    Usage is obsolete
  53. Carbon tetrachloride
    Clear, colorless liquid with ethereal odor resembling chloroform, not flammable

    Having narcotic & anesthetic properties resembling chloroform

    Too toxic for anesthetic, mechanism of injury is acute atrophy of liver and kidney
  54. Ethyl ether
    Ethyl oxide or diethyl ether, preciously in anesthesia, highly flammable

    Do not store once opened due to toxic products forming when exposed to light