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a. Learning can be defined as a change in behavior as a result of experience. For example, Marriage is a change in behavior
1) Characteristic of learning
a. Learning is purposeful. For Example, Each student has a specific goal. If student A is going to be a professional pilot, he will study harder then the private pilot who only wants to fly small planes.
- b. Learning is a result of experience. For Example, a student pilot flying a plane for the first time is experience, and he/she will perfect his/her flying skills from experience.
- c. Learning is Multifaceted. For Example, your verbal, conceptual, emotional elements all taking place at once. I.e. in a classroom where everyone is participating. Learning is an Active Process. For example, when a student is teaching, it’s an active process
1) Principles of learning
a. R-eadiness: The student has to be ready to learn R
- b. E-xercise: Things that most often repeated are best remembered.
- c. E-ffect: It’s an emotional reaction. Learning is strengthened when accompanied by a pleasant feeling.
- d. P-rimacy: when something is taught, it should be right the first time.
- e. I-ntensity: it’s a vivid experience. For example, doing spins or stalls
- f. R-ecency: Things that most recently learned are best remembered.
a. Perception: is when a person gives meaning to a sensation from sight, hearing, touch, smell, and taste. For example: when a student learns how to do stalls from seeing, hearing and feeling the aircraft.
- b. Insight: is a grouping of perception. For example: The student doing stalls learns more about the power settings, and why we do certain things for stalls.
- c. Motivation: is dominant force which governs the student progress
a. Rote: Repeating something back that was told to you.
- b. Understanding
- c. Application: applying it to the outside world.
- d. Correlation: for example: you finished your flight training and you go out to fly, and the plane engine stops, all the previous flight training comes in to play.
a. Cognitive (Knowledge) For Example: Taking ground school makes you smarter
- b. Affective (Attitude, personal beliefs, values) For Example: Student having a good or bad attitude
- c. Psychomotor (Physical) For example: Skills on flying, shooting an ILS
1) Learning Physical Skills
a. Physical Skills involve more than muscles (Perception changes as the physical skill becomes easier)
- b. Desire to Learn (Shorter initial learning time and more rapid progress)
- c. Patterns to follow (Provide a simple step by step example)
- d. Perform the skills (Student needs coordination between muscles and visual and tactile senses)
- e. Knowledge of results (Students need to know there progress)
- f. Progress follows a pattern (rapid improvement in the early stages but then there’s a plateau)
- g. Duration and organization of a lesson (Don’t practice the same thing over and over if the student knows it)
- h. Evaluation versus critique (Initial stage, practical suggestions are more valuable to the student then a grade)
- i. Application of skill
a. Sensory Register- receives input from the environment. (If the fire alarm goes of right now, the sensory registry is going to kick in and tell the working memory)
- b. Working or Short Term memory
- c. Long term memory
1) Theories of forgetting
- b. Interference
- c. Repression
a. Praise stimulates remembering- response which give a pleasurable return tend to be repeated.
- b. Recall is promoted by association
- c. Favorable attitudes aid retention- people learn and remember only what they wish to know.
- d. Learning with all our senses is most effective
- e. Meaningful repetition aids recall
- 2) Human Needs
- a. Physical
- b. Safety
- c. Social
- d. Egoistic
- e. Self-Fulfillment