Bio5

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Mattyj1388
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120113
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Bio5
Updated:
2011-12-01 18:29:09
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Chapter38 COD Angiosperm Reproduction Biotechnology
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  1. Artificial selection
    Selective breeding of domesticated plants and animals to encourage the occurrence of desirable traits.
  2. Alternation of generations
    • Life cycle in which there is both a multicellular diploid (2n) form, the sporophyte, and a multicellular haploid (n) form, the gametophyte.
    • 1.Sporophytes are the dominant generation.
    • a) Larger than gametophytes.
    • b) More conspicuous than gametophytes.
    • c) Longer-lived than gametophytes.
    • 2.Gametophytes are reduced in size and completely dependent on the sporophyte for nutrients.
  3. Complete flower
    Flower that has all four basic flower organs: petal, sepal, carpel, stamen.
  4. Incomplete flower
    • Flower in which one or more of the four basic floral organs are either absent or non-functional.
    • a)Grass flowers lack petals.
    • b) Flowers lacking carpels or stamen are sterile.
  5. Male
    Gametophyte (pollen grains)
    • 1.Each anther contains four microsporangia.
    • 2.Each microsporangia hold many microsporocytes.
    • 3.Each microsporocyte undergoes meiosis forming four haploid microspores.
    • 4.Each haploid microspore undergoes mitosis producing a male gametophyte consisting of pollen grains.
  6. Male gametophyte
    consists of only two cells
    • 1.generative cell: Divides and produces two sperm.
    • 2.tube cell: Produces the pollen tube which delivers the sperm to the female gametophyte.
  7. generative cell
    Divides and produces two sperm.
  8. tube cell
    Produces the pollen tube which delivers the sperm to the female gametophyte.
  9. Female Gametophyte
    (embryo sac)
    • 1.The ovule contains one megasporangium.
    • 2.The megasporangium holds one megasporocyte.
    • 3.The megasporocyte undergoes meiosis forming four haploid megaspores.
    • 4. Only one megaspore undergoes mitosis 3X producing a multicellular female gametophyte – the embryo sac.
  10. Pollination
    • Transfer of pollen from to the part of a seed plant containing the ovule; process required for fertilization.
    • wind/water: Enormous quantities of pollen released for random dispersal.
    • animals: Direct transfer of pollen from one plant to another by insects, birds, etc.
  11. Coevolution
    • Joint evolution of two interacting spp, each in response to selection process required for fertilization.
    • a) Insects, birds, etc. with uniquely adapted structures to pollinate specific plants.
  12. Double Fertilization
    • 1. After a pollen grain lands on the stigma, it absorbs water and germinates by producing a pollen tube.
    • 2. The pollen tube grows down the style towards the ovary.
    • 3. The nucleus of the generative cell divides by mitosis, forming 2 sperm.
    • 4. In n response to chemical attractants, the pollen tube grows toward the micropyle.
    • 5. The he sperm are discharged from the pollen tube and find their way into the embryo sac.
    • 6. Upon reaching the female gametophyte, one sperm fertilizes the egg, forming the zygote.
    • 7. The second sperm combines with the 2 polar nuclei, forming a triploid nucleus.
    • 8. This large central cell (3n) will produce the endosperm.
    • 9. Double fertilization: Mechanism of fertilization in angiosperms in which 2 sperm cells unite with 2 cells in the female gametophyte (embryo sac) to form the zygote and endosperm.
    • 10. Endosperm: Nutrient tissue formed by the fusion of a sperm with two polar nuclei during double fertilization; provides nourishment to developing embryo in angiosperm seeds.
  13. Endosperm Development
    • a) Usually develops before the embryo.
    • b) Begins as a liquid mass that eventually becomes solid.
    • c) Stores nutrients to be used by the seedling after germination.
  14. Embryo Development
    • a) First mitotic division splits the zygote into a basal cell and a terminal cell.
    • b) Terminal cell gives rise to most of the embryo.
    • c) Basal cell produces the suspensor which anchors the embryo while transferring nutrients from the parent cell or endosperm.
  15. Seed Dormancy: Adaptation to Tough Times
    • a) Seed dehydrates until water is 5 – 15% of its weight.
    • b) Embryo enters dormancy – stops growing and nearly ceases all metabolic activity.
    • c) Hard protective seed coat protects the embryo and its food supply.
    • d) Some seeds break dormancy as soon as they are in suitable environmental conditions.
    • e) Other seeds require specific nvironmental cues in addition to suitable conditions to break dormancy.
    • f) Specific environmental cues include:
    • i.Substantial rainfall in desert regions.
    • ii.Intense heat in areas prone to wildfires.
    • iii.Light for seeds buried in shallow soil.
    • iv.Chemicals for seeds that pass through an animal’s digestive system.
  16. Double
    fertilization
    Mechanism of fertilization in angiosperms in which 2 sperm cells unite with 2 cells in the female gametophyte (embryo sac) to form the zygote and endosperm.
  17. Endosperm
    Nutrient tissue formed by the fusion of a sperm with two polar nuclei during double fertilization; provides nourishment to developing embryo in angiosperm seeds.
  18. Seed Germination and
    Seedling Development
    • a) Imbibition: The physical absorption of water onto the internal surface of structures (seeds).
    • i. Causes the seeds to expand, rupturing seed coat.
    • ii. Enables the embryo to resume growth.
    • iii. Nutrients are transferred from the endosperm to the growing regions of the embryo.
    • b) Germination: Initiation of growth in seeds.
  19. Fruit Form and
    Function
    • Fruit: Mature ovary of the flower;
    • protects dormant seeds and
    • often aids in their dispersal (wind or animals).
    • a) If flower hasn’t been pollinated, fruit doesn’t develop.
    • b) As fruit grows, the flower withers and falls away.
  20. Fruit Classification
    • 1. simple: Derived from a single or several
    • fused carpels.
    • 2. aggregate: 1 flower , multiple carpels,
    • multiple fruits.
    • 3. multiple: Multiple flowers (inflorescence),
    • multiple carpels, multiple fruits.
    • 4. accessory: When other floral parts contribute to fruit.
  21. simple
    Derived from a single or several fused carpels.
  22. aggregate
    1 flower , multiple carpels, multiple fruits.
  23. multiple
    Multiple flowers (inflorescence), multiple carpels, multiple fruits.
  24. accessory
    When other floral parts contribute to fruit.
  25. Mechanisms of Asexual
    Reproduction
    • Asexual reproduction: Generation of offspring from a single parent without fusion of gametes.
    • a) Offspring are usually genetically identical to parents.
    • b) Common in angiosperms; in some spp, predominant mode of reproduction.
    • c) Vegetative reproduction.
  26. Asexual reproduction
    Generation of offspring from a single parent without fusion of gametes.
  27. Not done!

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