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What are some typical considerations for films?
- Max/Min Temperature
- Resistance to sunlight
- Heat sealing range
- Gas/Vapor permeability
What is the new class of laminates that are appearing?
What is the main characteristic of Ionomers?
Use ionic bonds- excellent resistance to grease, solvents
What is a retort pouch?
What is the primary layer of a retort pouch?
Polypropylene- food contact, sealing properties
What is the secondary layer of a retort pouch?
Aluminum foil- provides hermetic barrier properties
What is the tertiary layer of a retort pouch?
Nylon- abrasion- touch
What is the quaternary layer of a retort pouch?
Outer layer- Polyester- provides heat resistance- printability
What is the main use of retort pouches?
- Military (North America)
- Used extensively in Europe, Japan
What are some limitations of retort pouch?
- Low filling rates
- High cost of packaging
What is a retort thermo-formed trays?
More popular for convenience- just peel foil and microwave
What are some thermal processing challenges of thermo-formed trays?
Overpressure is required
What edible films used for?
Casings for weiners, sausages
What are some materials weiner and sausage casings can be made of?
- Animal intestines
What type of packaging is used for premixed food ingredients?
Starch Polymer packages
Why are starch polymer packages used for premixed food ingredients?
What are polysaccharide gums used for?
Used to encapsulate flavors for commercial use
Why do we do chemical tests on packaging?
To ensure plasticizers dont migrate into food
What other test do we do on packaging?
- Water vapor/gas transmission rates
What is special feature packaging?
Usually implies an additional convenience element
What materials are used for 'boil in the bag' packaging?
Mylar (polyester) or nylon- retains juices
What is special about 'from freezer to oven' packaging?
Retains moisture, protects the food which is visible, can endure 400°F
What are shrink wraps used for?
Used for vacuum packaging/ irregular shaped products
What is suscepter based packaging?
Allows for microwave browning?
What gasses are used in aerosols?
Nitrous oxide, N2 gas
What are PET bottles?
What are the characteristics of PET bottles?
Clarity of glass, low weight, no breakage
What is MAP?
Modified Atmosphere Packaging
What is the purpose of MAP?
Extend shelf life by modifying the atmosphere inside the package to slow microbial growth
How is packaging used as communication?
Attract (advertise) and inform (nutritional value)
What are some ways packaging is used to attract buyers?
What are some packaging considerations in China?
- Purple is unlucky
- White indicates mourning
What are some packaging considerations in India?
Cows on label are sacreligous
What is the major conflict in food packaging?
Conflict between primary requirement (in the case of food) and the environment
How are we slowly resolving the issue of enviroment issues with packaging?
- Recycling of cans
- Re-use of plastics as structural materials
What is the base of biodegradable packaging?
Why is packaging a major contributor to the cost of food?
Packaging often costs more than the product
What is Canadas maim legislation in the food industry?
Foods and Drugs Act
Why was the Foods and Drugs Act designed?
To protect canadians against health hazards and fraud from the sale of food, drugs, cosmetics and medical devices
What was the original legislation of food regulations?
Inland Revenue Act (1875)
Who sets and administers food safety standards and criteria?
What does health canada provide information and policies on?
Genetically modified foods and nutrition labeling
Who enforces the Foods and Drugs Act?
Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA)
How was CFIA formed?
Formed under the Food Inspection Agency Act of 1997 and is part of Agriculture and Acri-Food Canada
What is CFIA responsible for?
- Inspecting domestiv plants and animals
- Inspecting food processing plants
- Checking foods coming into Canada
- Monitors food, feeds, seeds and fertilizers
- Regulates food labeling/claims
- Regulates biotechnological applications
How many employees does CFIA have?
How many offices does CFIA have across Canada?
What are the two major legislative packages of concern relative to food?
- Food and Drugs Act
- Consumer Packaging and Labeling Act
What is being contemplated to replace the Food and Drugs Act and related legislation?
Canada Health Protection Act
What does the Consumer Packaging and Labeling Act define?
How food can be packaged and labeled?
What are some basic canadian labeling requirements?
- Common name of food
- Net quantity
- Name and address of company responsible for food
- List of ingredients in descending orfer of quantity
- Durable life date and storage instructions
- Basic nutrition information
- Nutrition facts- some harmonization between US and Canada
What kind of claims are not allowed to be on nutrition labels?
No claims allowed in relation to the treatment of diseases
What must be provided on a nutrition label?
Must provide food composition and energy- expressed in calories or Kj per serving (defined)
What types of claims must be proven on nutritional labels?
Claims that a product is 'Excellent' or 'Good' source of something
How are fat claims defined?
High saturated fat and low cholesterol claims are incompatible (trans content labeling is now legislated)
What motion was passed in the house of commons in 2004?
A motion for eliminating trans fatty acids
What are some additional issues addressed in 'Guide to Food Labeling and Advertising'?
- Language requirements (french/english)
- Screening of advertising scripts
- Use of testimonials
- Scare tactics
What are 'Standards of Identity'?
General makeup/composition of over 200 'common' products
Why are the standards of identity under threat?
Because 'non-standard' products are being developed or enter the country as part of the WTO agreement
What threat does WTO harmonization pose?
It is unlikely that all of our defined standards will survive intact
If a milk substitute is to be promoted as 'like milk' what must be proven?
It mist be proven to have similar nutritional value as the product it purports to be a substitute for
WHat are some types of special dietary foods?
- Infant formulas
- Weight reduction (diet) foods
- Vitamin or nutrient enriched foods
What are some specialty product definitions?
- Gluten free products
- Protein restricted products
- Low fat products
What special dietary terms have legal definitions?
- Low Carbohydrate
- Sugar free
- Calorie reduced
- Fat modified
- Low sodium
- Meal replacers
What has the development of 'nutraceuticals' given us?
The indirect use of food as a vehicle for medical or health benefit claims
What were functional foods designed for?
Designed to allow canadian food industry to comperte in a marked aimed at disease prevention and health promotion of foods
What is the definition of 'neutraceutical'?
Any food or food ingredient that may provide a health benefit beyond the traditional nutrients it contains
What are prebiotics?
Non-digestible food ingredients that stimulate the growth and/or activity of bacteria in the digestive system which are beneficial to the health of the body. They are considered a functional food
What are probiotics?
dietary supplements of live microorganisms thought to be healthy for the host organism
Why are foods being formulated with 'herbals' insufficient?
- It implies benefits, but the active ingredients may not be present in amounts sufficient to have an effect
- The active ingredient may cause problems due to interactions with medications being taken
What is the problem with nutraceutical and functional foods?
They are crossing/blurring the demarcation between simple food and medicine
What are novel foods and genetically modified foods?
- Foods resulting from a process not previously used for food
- Products that do not have a safe history of safe use as a food
- Foods modified by genetic manipulation (Gm, biotechnology derived)
What are some examples of extraneous matter in food?
- Insect fragments
- Rodent hairs
- Metal/glass fragments
- Feather barbules
- Animal droppings
What are some examples of environmental contaminants?
- Chlorinated hydrocarbons
How many allowable additives are on the food and drug act list of additives?
What else does the Food and Drug Act define in terms of additives?
Defines what constitutes flavors and spices
What are some other legal documents that regulate foods?
- Consumer Packaging and Labelling Act
- Pesticide Residue Compensation Act
- Health of Animals Act
- Canada Health Act
- Canadian Environmental Protection Act
What are the two integral parts of the success of convenienve foods?
What are some common beliefs about food additives?
- That natural or organic foods are of better quality
- That natural-organic foods are more nutritious
- That processed foods which contain additives are bad for you
What are the consumer desires for future food?
- High quality, but convenient foods- associates quality with it being additive free
- More often wrong than right- additives are an integral part of our ability to mass product stable, high quality food products
What are the 4 main ideas of industrial production of food?
- Scale, logistics and time available for provessing is dramatically different than home 'prodiction'
- Extended shelf life is a necessity for distribution
- There is a need to control impairment of texture/color in processed foods
- Require control over health hazards associated with improper processing, handling or storage of food
What is an 'at home' remedy to prevent enzymatic browning in apple sauce?
Adding lemon juice
What is an 'at home' product that you can add to vegetable oil to emulsify a salad dressing?
What can you add to salt as an anti-caking agent?
How can you produce caramel color and flavor at home?
How can you make marmalade at home?
Add orange peels (pectin)
How does one prevent enzymatic browning in the industry?
Add citric acid as opposed to lemon juice
How does addind citric acid and lemon juice differ?
Citric acid is an additive, wheras lemon juice is not
What is the definition of a food additive?
Any substance, the use of which resutls or may reasonable result in it or its byproducts becoming a part of or affecting the characteristics of a food
What type of ingredients are not included in the list of additives?
Common food ingredients, uch as sugars, starch, salt or vitamins, minerals, amino acids, spices, seasonings, or agriculural residues and packaging materials
What are the basic premises regulating food additives?
- That the additive is safe based on toxicological data relative to consumption data
- Thatn its use is non deceptive- i.e., does not try to hide product defects
- That the consumer benefits from its use in obtaining a better quality product of extended shelf life
What are the 15 major categories of food additives?
- Type I-III Preservatives
- Bleaching agents
- Starch modifying agents
- Yeast foods
- Sequestering agents
- Extraction solvents
- Firming agents
- Food enzymes
- Coloring agents
- Glazing/polishing agents
- Non-nutritive sweeteners
- Miscellaneous additives
What is the function of type I-III preservatives?
Mold inhibitors- antioxidants
What is the function of bleaching agents?
What is the function of starch modifying agents?
What is the function of yeast foods?
Micronutrients for yeasts
Wht is the function of sequestering agents?
Metal ion control
What is the function of extraction solvents?
De-cafeination, oil extraction
What is the function of food enzymes?
- Cheese production
- Meat tenderization
What is the function of coloring agents?
What type of food is glazing/polishing agents used on?
What is the function of non-nutritive sweeteers?
What is the function of miscellaneous additives?
What is an example of bleaching agents?
What is an example of a yeast food?
What is an example of a sequestering agent?
What are 2 examples of extraction solvents?
What is an example of a firming agent?
What are 2 examples of food enzymes?
What is an example of glazing/polishing agents?
What are 2 examples of non-nutritive sweeteners?
What are some examples of miscellaneous additives?
What concept do scientists use as the basis for additive use?
What is the general idea of the risk/benefit concept?
There is no such thing as absolute safety in life, thus for every action there is a subsequent risk
How does one determine the risk of an additive?
- Start with an LD50- lethal dose effect- 50% mortality
- Additive is then tested to determine an 'effect level' and a 'no effect level' through animal trials (based on Wt consumed/Kg body weight)
- If successful- tested on human volunteers at the 'no effect' level
How are additives implemented?
- The no-effect level is divided by 100 and further adjusted for the products consumption pattern
- Additives are regularly reviewed in the light of new scientific and/or toxicological information
What is the cost to develop a new additive?
How long does it take to develop a new additive?
What is a recent addition to the list of additives in Canada?
Sucralose (Splenda)- 1991
What are 'alternative foods'?
Naturaral, Organic, or Health foods
Why are concerns about processed foods and additives in foods unlikely to go away?
The consumer is not in control
What are some processes that minimize the use of additives?
- Food Irradiation
- Modified atmosphere packaging
- Sous-vide technology
- High pressure processing
- Pulsed electric field