vet-tech-therio-ch-x

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Author:
darlene.m.nelson
ID:
120128
Filename:
vet-tech-therio-ch-x
Updated:
2011-12-01 17:17:31
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vet tech theriogenology chapter neonate set
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vet tech theriogenology chapter x the neonate set
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  1. Care of the normal neonate kitten
    • normal birth weight - 100g +/- 10 g
    • - < 90 g increases risk of neonatal mortality
    • weighed every day - should gain a min of 7-10g/day while nursing
    • born with closed eyelids and external ear canals
    • weaning may begin at 3-6 weeks (weight ~500g)
    • - 6-12 weeks is better (8 weeks)
    • eyelids open at 5-14 days (8 days)
    • external ear canals open at between 6 and 14 days (9 days)
    • day 30, kittens are ambulatory and can see
    • difficult to sex
    • - measure anogenital distance:
    • -- 11-16 mm distance in male
    • -- 6-9 mm distance in female
    • no clumping litter when they are first learning
  2. Care of orphaned kittens
    • provide warm, clean and dry environment, free of draft
    • milk supplement
    • - KMR (TM) - Kitten Milk Replacement
    • - there are others, but Sheila likes KMR best
    • small, frequent feedings
    • lactating queen to nurse orphans is best
    • - hopefully, the kittens will get colostrum
    • weigh daily
    • - to ensure gaining weight, not losing
    • stimulate urination and defecation after each feeding
    • - use cotton, dampen with warm water
    • - don't worry if don't defecate for a day
  3. Care of the normal neonate puppy
    • neonatal period
    • - from birth until eyes are open
    • -- applicable to kittens as well
    • -- ~10-14 days, up to 3 weeks
    • - ear canals closed until ~2 weeks of age
  4. Thermoregulation
    • also applies to kittens (maybe not exact temps)
    • newborn rectal BT 95-99
    • - shivering - not fully operative until ~ 6th day
    • - able to pant
    • when cold, everything slows down - GI tract, food absorption, heart rate
    • physiologic functioning
    • - normal BT 96 - heart rate 200-250 bpm
    • - decreased BT 70 - heart rate 4-50 bpm - dehydration/death
    • Sources of heat include:
    • - warm water bottle
    • - heat lamp
    • - warm water blanket
    • - incubator
    • - rice bags
    • be careful not to overheat - neonates tend not to move around much, so one side will be really warm
  5. Carboydrate metabolism
    • newborns have a lower rate of glucose metabolism
    • - euglycemia - normal levels of sugar
    • - hypoglycemia
    • -- low blood sugar
    • -- clinical signs
    • --- lethargy
    • --- failure to nurse
    • --- depression
    • --- mental dullness
    • --- tremors
    • -- Karo syrup (light, not dark) on the gums will revive them; absorbed through mucous membranes
  6. Gastrointestinal function
    • GI tract
    • - well developed
    • - sterile
    • - normal nursing pup - stool is yellowish tan and semi-formed
    • - deciduous teeth erupt at 3-6 weeks (canines)
    • passive immunity - colostrum - 1st 24 hours
    • after 24 hours - get IgG and IgA from mother's milk
    • lab profiles (normal)
    • - high hematocrit (HCT) - 63%
    • - higher white blood cell (WBC) count
    • - incr GGT and incr ALKPHOS - indicate colostrum ingested - confirm passive immunity
  7. Raising the orphaned pup
    • provide warm, clean and dry environment, free of draft
    • monitor weight gains
    • - weight should increase by at least 10-15% each day during the first 2-3 weeks
    • frequent physical exams
    • milk supplement
    • - Esbilac
    • -- 4X/day
    • -- recommencd bottle feed (suckling response)
    • -- also good for baby squirrels
    • - red rubber feeding tube
    • -- not recommended
    • -- over distension of the stomach - regurgitation, aspiration pneumonia
    • -- feed every 2-4 hours - deprived of suckling response
  8. Disorders of the neonate
    • genetic defects
    • newborn pup - complete physical exam
    • failure to thrive +/- nursing
    • swimmer pups
    • pectus excavatum
    • neonatal septicemia - fading puppy syndrome
  9. Newborn pup - complete physical exam should check for
    • cleft palate
    • normal oronasal cavity
    • extra limbs
    • omphalocele - umbilical hernia
    • congenital disorders - present at birth
  10. Swimmer pups
    • splayed legs - "paddling"
    • use slip-free surface
    • muscles will eventually become strong enough to support them
  11. Pectus Excavatum
    • more common in cats than dogs
    • congenital deformity of the sternum and costocartilages
    • symptoms include:
    • - dyspnea
    • - cyanosis
    • - vomiting - due to possible squeezing of esophagus
    • can see it on x-ray
    • can stitch a cast to the divet and eventually, hopefully it will grow correctly
    • - must change cast as animal grows
  12. Neonatal Septicemia
    • "fading puppy syndrome"
    • die within 4 days of showing signs of:
    • - weight loss
    • - cyanosis
    • - diarrhea
    • - hematuria
    • - vocalization
    • - coma

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