Animal Architecture and Classification

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Animal Architecture and Classification
2011-12-06 18:41:04
Animal Architecture Classification

Zoology Notes Test #1
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  1. How many major phyla of living multicellular animals do zoologists recognize today?
  2. What was the largest evolutionary event in the history of animal life that occured 600 million years ago?
    The Cambrian Explosion.
  3. How many phyla were present at the end of the Cambrian Explosion?
    100 different phyla.
  4. How many of the known body types were present?
    All known body types were present.
  5. What are major body plans the result of?
    Extensive selection. They are also a limiting determinant of future body forms for decendents of that ancestral line.
  6. Animals share structural complexities that reflect what?
    Common ancestry.
  7. Unicellular organisms of Kingdom Protista that are animal-like.
  8. Multicellular organisms of Kingdom Protista that are animal-like.
  9. What are the grades of organization?
    • 1. Protoplasmic
    • 2. Cellular
    • 3. Tissue or Cell/Tissue
    • 4. Organ or Tissue/Organ
    • 5. System or Organ/System
  10. Within one cell, the organism can perform all of the basic functions of life as seen in more complex animals.
  11. What is an example of protoplasmic animals?
  12. Cells become specialized parts of a whole organism.
  13. The cells are incapable of living alone.
  14. A division of labor is present among different cell types.
  15. What is an example of cellular animals?
  16. Cells work closely together as a unit to perform a common function.
  17. What is an example of a tissue animal?
  18. Many tissues work together in one organ.
  19. Most Metazoans operate at this level.
  20. Usually one type of tissue carries the burden of the organs chief function while the other tissues perform supportive roles.
  21. Example: Heart - all four tissues.
  22. What are examples of an organ level animal?
    Flatworms, tapworms.
  23. More than one organ works together to achieve one goal or set of goals.
  24. Usually designed to operate basic bodily functions (respiration, circulation, digestion, etc....)
  25. Most animals are at this grade.
  26. What are examples of animals with systems?
    Crab, cow, horse, donkey.
  27. How many different organ systems can Metazoans exhibit?
  28. What are the 11 systems metazoans can exhibit?
    • 1. Integumentary
    • 2. Skeletal
    • 3. Muscular
    • 4. Digestive
    • 5. Respiratory
    • 6. Circulatory
    • 7. Urinary
    • 8. Nervous
    • 9. Endocrine
    • 10. Reproductive
    • 11. Immune
  29. Covers and protects the body from external pathogens.
  30. What are the components of the Integumentary system?
    • 1. Nails
    • 2. Hair
    • 3. Scales
    • 4. Glands
    • 5. Skin
  31. Gives structure/support, protection, and movement.
    Skeletal system
  32. What are the components of the skeletal system?
    • 1. Bones
    • 2. Cartilage
    • 3. Ligaments
  33. Movement of skeleton, movement of internal organs, movement of blood.
    Muscular system
  34. What are the components of the Muscular system?
    • 1. Smooth
    • 2. Cardiac
    • 3. Skeletal/Striated
  35. Breaks down food and the absorption of nutrients.
    Digestive system
  36. What are the components of the Digestive system?
    • 1. Mouth
    • 2. Esophagus
    • 3. Stomach
    • 4. Intestines
    • 5. Liver
    • 6. Pancreas
  37. Gas exchange - specifically for oxygen and carbon dioxide.
    Respiratory system
  38. What are the components of the Respiratory system?
    • 1. Lungs
    • 2. Trachea
  39. Moves specific molecules through the body. (like blood and oxygen)
    Circulatory system
  40. What are the components of the Circulatory system?
    • 1. Heart
    • 2. Blood vessels
    • 3. Red blood cells
    • 4. Platelets
    • 5. Plasma
    • 6. Lymph
  41. Removes/filters metabolic waste from body fluids; regulates salt/water content.
    Urinary system
  42. What are the components of the Urinary system?
    • 1. Kidney
    • 2. Urinary bladder
    • 3. Associated ducts (ureter, urethra etc ...)
  43. Receives and interprets stimuli, conducts impulses throughout the body.
    Nervous system
  44. What are the components of the nervous system?
    • 1. Nerves
    • 2. Brain
    • 3. Spinal cord
  45. Regulates bodily functions, blood chemistry.
    Endocrine system
  46. What are the components of the Endocrine system?
    • 1. Pituitary
    • 2. Adrenal
    • 3. Thyroid
  47. Continuation of species.
    Reproductive species
  48. What are the components of the Reproductive species?
    • 1. Testes
    • 2. Ovaries
    • 3. Associated structures
  49. Defend the body against internal pathogens.
    Immune system
  50. What are the components of the Immune system?
    • 1. Lymph Nodes
    • 2. Lymphatic Vessels
  51. What is the advantage of more complex grades of metazoan organization?
    They get bigger.
  52. Being large has benefits, what are they?
    • 1. Better offense/better defense.
    • 2. Buffer against environmental change.
    • 3. Cost of maintaining temperature is less greams per body weight.
    • 4. Cost of movement is less grams per body weight.
  53. What are the problems of being larger?
    • 1. Less surface area compared to its volume.
    • 2. Animal respiration (getting oxygen to the cells that are not near the surface of an organism).
    • 3. Heat loss (small organisms are unlikely to "overheat" as they have a large surface with which to dissipate heat).
    • 4. Nutrition ( Nutrients getting to cells far from the surface).
  54. How does surface area increase?
    As the square of body length, volume is the cube of body length.
  55. What are two solutions that larger animals might have that help with the problems they face?
    • 1. Developed internal transport systems.
    • 2. Folding and flattening of the body.
  56. This person stated that tere is a tendency for the maximum body size noted in a species to increase along their lines of descent.
    Cope's Law of Phyletic Increase
  57. Cope noted that lineages began with small individuals and eventually evolved toward considerably larger forms. What does this hold true for?
    Nonflying vertebrates and many invertebrates.
  58. What are noncellular components of metazoan animals?
    Body fluids and extracellular structural elements.
  59. Fluid inside the cell.
  60. Fluid outside the cell.
  61. What are part of the extracellular fluids in open and closed circulatory systems?
    Blood plasma and interstitial fluid.
  62. Tissue fluid surrounding the cells.
    Interstitial fluid
  63. What are the functions of Architectural Extracellular Structural Elements?
    • Mechanical stability
    • Support and structure
    • Protection
  64. What are examples of Architectural Extracellular Structural Elements?
    • 1. Collagen fibers
    • 2. Calcium matrix
  65. What are the four types of tissues?
    • 1. Epithelial tissue
    • 2. Connective tissue
    • 3. Muscular tissue
    • 4. Nervous tissue
  66. Study of tissues.
  67. As an animal zygote develops, cells are differentiated into up to three germ layers where they will undergo further differentiation inot their ultimate cell type. What are these three germ layers?
    • 1. Ectoderm
    • 2. Endoderm
    • 3. Mesoderm
  68. Will become skin and nerves.
  69. Will become testines, stomach, esophagous, mouth, digestive tract...
  70. Will become muscles, bone, connective tissue, heart, lungs...
  71. When do the germ layers become differentiated into the four different kinds of tissues?
    When organogenesis occurs?
  72. A thin sheet of cells.
    Epithelial tissue
  73. Where is epithelial tissue located?
    On top of everything.
  74. What does Epithelial tissue provide?
    Outside protection and internal linings, often modified into glands that can produce lubricants.
  75. What do all epithelia have?
    An underlying basement membrane (a condensation of the ground substance of connective tissue).
  76. What is the significance of the basement membrane of epithelial tissue?
    It allows new skin cells/epithelial cells to be produced, and it is also where cells are alive (dividing).
  77. What never penetrates epithelial tissue?
    Blood vessels. They therefore rely on diffusion to obtain O2 and nutrients from underlying tissues.
  78. What are the types of epithelial tissue?
    • 1. Simple epithelia
    • 2. Stratified epithelia
  79. (One layer) are found in all metazoa.
    Simple epithelia
  80. (Multiple layers) are restricted to vertebrates.
    Stratified epithelia
  81. Serves in binding and supportive functions.
    Connective tissue
  82. Where is connective tissue located?
  83. What is connective tissue composed of?
    Few cells, many extracellular fluids and a ground substance of matrix in which the fibers are embedded.
  84. In vertebrates, there are two types of connective tissue proper. What are they?
    • 1. Loose connective tissue
    • 2. Dense connective tissue
  85. Has fibers and both fixed and wandering cells in a syrupy matrix.
    Loose connective tissue
  86. What are examples of loose connective tissue?
    • 1. Fat
    • 2. Mesentary
  87. Characterized by densely packed fibers.
    Dense connective tissue
  88. What are examples of dense connective tissue?
    • 1. Tendons
    • 2. Ligaments
  89. What is much of the fibrous tissue (connective tissue) made up of?
    The protein collagen.
  90. What is the most abundant protein in the animal kingdom?
  91. What has great tensile strength?
  92. What does connective tissue also include?
    Blood, lymph and tissue fluid (collectively called vascular tissue).
  93. What does connective tissue of invertebrates also have?
    • 1. Cells
    • 2. Fibers
    • 3. Ground substance but it is not as greatly developed.
  94. A semi-rigid connective tissue with closely packed fibers embedded in a gel-like matrix.
  95. Calcified connective tissue with calcium salts organized around collagen fibers.
  96. The most abundant tissue in most animals.
    Muscular tissue
  97. What does muscle originate from?
    The germ layer called mesoderm.
  98. The cell is the muscle fiber, what is it specialized for?
    Contracts - causes movement.
  99. What are the three types of muscle cells?
    • 1. Skeletal
    • 2. Smooth
    • 3. Cardiac
  100. Voluntary, and it appear transversely striped (called striated). The fibers are much longer than they are wide. Nuclei are pushed to the periphery (sides) of the cell, and there are more one per cell.
    Skeletal muscle
  101. Involuntary, and it lacks the bands seen in striated muscle. Single nuclei found in the middle of the cell.
    Smooth muscle
  102. Involuntary, but it has striations. Muscle cells are separated by intercalary disks. Single nucleus per cell.
    Cardiac muscle
  103. The contractile elements and the unspecialized cytoplasm of muscles is called sarcoplasm.
  104. Receives, conducts, and interprets stimuli.
    Nervous tissue
  105. What does nervous tissue do?
    Receives and conducts impulses.
  106. What are the two types of cells within nervous tissue?
    • 1. Neurons
    • 2. Neuroglia
  107. The basic functional unit of nervous tissue, conducts impulses.
  108. Non-nervous cells that insulate neuron membranes and serve various supportive functions that support the neurons.
    Neuroglia (glues together, Oxygen & carbon dioxide)
  109. What are the types of animal symmetry?
    • 1. Spherical
    • 2. Radial
    • 3. Biradial
    • 4. Bilateral
  110. When any plane that passes through the central point divides the body into mirrored halves, as in cutting a basketball in half.
    Spherical symmetry
  111. When any plan passing through the longitudinal axis divides the body into mirrored halves, as in cutting a pizza; the Cnidaria (hydras, jellyfish), Ctenophora (comb jellies), and the Echinodermata (sea stars, sea urchins) are the Radiata.
    Radial symmetry
  112. Usually this is found in organisms who are sessile (do not move) or weakly swimming.
    Radial symmetry
  113. What is an advantage of radial symmetry for sessile organisms?
    Protections from predators and offense (It can see from all sides).
  114. When an animal is radial except for some paired feature that allows only two mirrored halves (sea walnuts).
    Biradial symmetry
  115. When an organism can be cut in a sagittal plane into two mirror halves; this usually provides for a head (cephalization) in bilateral animals classified as the Bilateria.
  116. What is an advantage of cephalization?
    Faster movement.
  117. What is an advantage of being bilateral?
    They can move much faster.
  118. Indicates the head end.
  119. The opposite or tail end.
  120. The back side.
  121. The front or belly side.
  122. On the midline of the body.
  123. To the sides.
  124. Parts are far from the body.
  125. Parts are near.
  126. Plane divides the body into dorsal and ventral halves (sometimes called coronal plane).
  127. Divides an animal into right and left halves.
    Sagittal plane
  128. Seperates anterior and posterior portions.
    Transverse plane (or cross section).
  129. In vertebrates, is the chest region or area supported by the forelegs.
  130. Refers to the hip region or area supported by the hind legs.
  131. What are the types of body cavities?
    • 1. The Coelom
    • 2. Acoelomate Bilateria
    • 3. Pseudocoelomate Bilateria
    • 4. Eucoelomate Bilateria
  132. Tube within a tube.
    The Coelom
  133. What is the major evolutionary innovation of Bilateria?
    The coelom.
  134. A fluid-filled space around the gut.
    The coelom
  135. How does the coelom help the organism?
    • 1. Space for organs.
    • 2. Less organ deformity (not being crushed).
    • 3. Increased surface area.
  136. What to worms realy on the coelom for?
    A hydrostatic skeleton to aid in burrowing and movement.
  137. No body cavity.
    Acoelomate Bilateria
  138. Internal regions are filled with mesoderm in the form of a spongy mass of parenchyma that wander in from the ectoderm.
    Acoelomate Bilateria
  139. Sometimes, what cells are the cell bodies of muscle cells?
    Parenchyma cells
  140. Cavity that is not completely lined by mesoderm.
    Pseudocoelomate Bilateria
  141. What have a cavity around the gut but it is not completely lined by mesoderm?
    Nematodes and some others.
  142. What provides a tube-within-a-tube arrangement.
    Pseudocoelomate Bilateria
  143. Totally lined by mesoderm.
    Eucoelomate Bilateria
  144. What is a true coelom completely lined with?
    Mesodermal peritoneum.
  145. What are the two methods eucoelomates can be formed?
    • 1. Schizocoelous
    • 2. Enterocoelous
  146. Formation involves splitting of mesodermal bands that originate from cells in the blastopore region.
  147. Formation comes from pouches of the archenteron or primitive gut.
  148. Serial repetition of similar body segments along the longitudinal axis.
    Metamerism (segmentation)
  149. What is each segment called?
    A metamere or somite.
  150. Where is true metamerism found in?
    Annelida, Arthropods and Chordata; other groups show a superficial segmentation.
  151. Differentiation of the head, is mainly found in bilaterally symmetrical animals.
  152. Concentrating the sense organs at the head, as well as the mouth, is efficient for what?
    Sensing and responding to the environment and food.
  153. What major characteristics do we use to formally group animals?
    • 1. Anatomical Traits
    • 2. Symmetry
    • 3. Cephalization
    • 4. Body cavity type
    • 5. Metamerism
    • 6. Embryological Development
  154. Unicellular and animal-like. They constitute many phyla and none of them belong within the animal kingdom.
  155. Refers to the multicellular animals, and is therefore synonymous with the animal kingdom proper.
  156. In a classical outline, what are bilateral animals divided into?
    Deuterostomes and protostomes; however some phyla have mixed traits.
  157. Deuterostome means...
    Anus develops first.
  158. Protostome means...
    Mouth develops first.
  159. Cleavage mostly spiral.
  160. Cleavage mostly radial.
  161. Endomesoderm usually from a particular blastomere designated 4d.
  162. Endomesoderm from enterocoelous pouching (except chordates).
  163. In coelomate protostomes the coelom forms as a split in mesodermal bands (schizocoelous).
  164. All coelomate, coelom from fusion of enterocoelous pouches (except chordates, which are schizocoelous).
  165. Mouth from, at, or near blastopore; anus a new formation.
  166. Embryology mostly determinate (mosiac).
  167. Includes phyla Platyheiminthes, Nemertea, Annelida, Mollusca, Arthropoda, minor phyla.
  168. Anus from, at, or near blastopore, mouth a new formation.
  169. Embryology usually indeterminate (regulative).
  170. Includes phyla Echinodermata, Hemichordata, Chaetognatha, Phoronida, Ectoprocta, Brachiopods, Chordata.