· among east Germans. The prominent east Germans left East Germany and went to West Germany. Soviets came up with the idea of Berlin wall. This was to keep the East Germans in East Germany.
Kennedy responded by supporting
West Germany. He accepted the fundamental policy of containment. The soviet controlled east germany ironically contained themselves
Oct 1962 was the
· most dangerous part of the Cold War Era. Soveits began to move missiles into cuba the summer of 1962.
· Spy planes took photos of missile sites
· Kennedy announced the US knew Soviets were putting missiles in Cuba. Kennedy said that we would have a blockade against Cuba but called it a quarantine. Blockades are acts of war.
Cubans and Soviets feared
Cubans and Soviets feared
· Kennedy would oust Castro. Missiles would serve as a deterrent. In this context a compromise was worked out.
· Khrushchev would remove war heads and not attack and Kennedy would not invade Cuba.
· Also, Jupiter missiles were removed from turkey. In a sense American missiles were
removed for Cuban missiles.
· Kennedy again went with containment instead of throwing out Castro.
People in the Kennedy Administration wanted
· an air attack on Cuba. Some missiles in Cuba were armed so we are fortunate that this action was not taken by Kennedy. Afterwards soviets and Americans later agreed that this was not a very good idea.
Kennedy through operation Mongoose
were trying to get rid of Castro was still trying to kill Castro under cover but not through invasion.
Created a hotline between White House and Kremlin.
· Kennedy and Khrushchev agreed they would no longer do open testing of nuclear bombs. Nuclear test ban allowed testing underground only.
The US and China were out of sync.
· When china was open to relationship in mid 1950's, the administration of Eisenhower was not interested. As soviets were moving towards De Taunt the Chinese were moving away.
Chinese in mid 1950's called for
· coexistance. Opened a tentative agreement Sept 1955 in Geneva. 1958 these conversations were moved to Warsaw. This did not lead to a direct establishment in Beijing or Washington by either side. US policy of containment towards Soviets was same to Chinese except Chinese were also isolated.
After ending war in Korea, Eisenhower became
· president. He had a more aggressive policy to china than Truman. Shortly after becoming president he announced the releasing of Chiang Kai-Chek.
· First State of the Union issued issued instructions that the fleet would no longer protect communist China from Nationalists in Taiwan.
June 1957 Dulles said -
· hoped communism would cease to exist in China
· We dare not recognize communists in China or other communism may happen.
· Kennedy blamed Chinese for their poor relationship with USA.
Kennedy in 1963 said we are not going to trade with
· Red China. When they want to live with peace we will work with them. Notice refusal of name as peoples republic of China.
Lyndon Johnson maintained the same relation.
nationalists in Taiwan.
Lyndon Johnson thought there was a connection between assassination with Kennedy and operation
He thought Lee Harvey Oswald was involved with Cuba. Nothing was found.
Vietminh and Ho Chi Minh
· resisted return of French. From their view war started in 1945. From French point of view the war began 1946 when Vietminh attacked French in Vietnam.
US wanted to support France in Europe
· so in a real sense they ended up supporting France in southest Asia.
· Problem French faced was that most Vietnamese did not want foreingers to rule the country.
By 1947, French came up with solution that
emperor of Vietnam Bao Dai would return as a symbolic leader but do what the French want.
Bao Dai wanted the French to
· recognize independence and unity of Vietnam for him to do this. French finally worked with and did this June 1948. At this point Bao Dai was not quite ready. March 1949 French President gave further encouragement that Vietnam would be independent and have unity.
July 1 1949 formal declaration
· of independence of Vietnam. Independence in name is not the same as independence in practice.
Prime minister of Vietnam eventually became
· Ngo Dinh Diem. He did not see this as genuine independence. From his point of view the French were too much involved so he would not go back right away.
French faced continued resistance from
· Vietminh. Soviets and Peoples Republic of China gave a little support to Vietminh but essentially this rebellion was
· By 1954 French had 200,000 troops in Vietnam. Were not able to win the war working with Bao Dai
· French made alliances out of despiration
Binh Xuyen were local
· mafia. French formed an alliance with them in exchange for commitment by them to support France. French gave them responsibility to police Saigon.
Americans were becoming increasingly involved.
· Feb 7 1950 US recognized state of Vietnam as newly independent state. May 9 1950 Truman began to extend military and economic aid to French EndoChina and in Vietnam. This all began prior to Korean war. Korean war would