PSY 230

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  1. osteoporosis
    a condition in which the bones become brittle, fragile, and thin, often brought about by a lack of calcium in the diet
  2. presbyopia
    a nearly universal change in eyesight during middle adulthood that results in some loss of near vision
  3. glaucoma
    a condition in which pressure in the fluid of the eye increases, either because the fluid cannot drain properly or because too much fluid is produced.
  4. presbycusis
    loss of the ability to hear sounds of high frequency
  5. "settling" process
    after age 55; when the body shrinks. (2 in in women; 1in in men )
  6. "middle-age spread"
    fat tends to grow
  7. visual acuity
    ability to discern fine spatial detail in both close and distant objects
  8. sound localization
    people who have hearing difficulties may also have problems identifying the direction and origin of sound
  9. female climacteric
    the period that marks the transition from being able to bear children to being unable to do so
  10. menopause
    the cessation of menstruation
  11. male climacteric
    the period of physical and psychological changes relating to the male reproductive system that occurs during late middle age
  12. perimenopause
    is the period beginning around 10 years prior to menopause when hormone production begins to change. Marked by some of the same symptoms
  13. hormone therapy (HT)
    estrogen and progesterone are adminstered to alleviate the worst of the symptoms experienced by menopausal woman
  14. psychoneuroimmunologists
    who study the relationship among the brain, the immune system, and psychological factors.
  15. stress
    produces three major consequences; Direct Physiological Effects, Harmful Behaviors; Indirect Health-Related Behaviors
  16. Direct Physiological Effects
    elevated blood pressure, decreased in immune system functioning, increased hormonal activity, psychophysiological conditions
  17. Harmful Behaviors
    Increased use of nicotine, alcohol, and other drugs, decreased nutrition, decreased sleep, increased drug use
  18. Indirect Health-Related Behaviors
    decreased compliance with medical advice, increased delays in seeking medical care, decreased liklihood of seeking medical advice
  19. Type A behavior pattern
    behavior characterized by competitiveness, impatience, and a tendency toward frustration and hostility
  20. Type B behavior
    behavior characterized by noncompetitiness, patience, and a lack of aggression
  21. polyphasic activities
    multiple activities carried out simultaneously
  22. Type "D"
    "distressed"- linked to coronary heart disease- Johan Denollet
  23. cross-sectional studies
    which test people of different ages at the same point in time
  24. cohort effects
    associated with groups growing up at a particular historical time that affect person's of a particular age
  25. fluid intelligence
    reflects information processing capabilities, reasoning, and memory
  26. crystallized intelligence
    the accumulation of information, skills, and strategies that people have learned through experience and that they can apply in problem-solving situations
  27. selective optimization
    the process by which people concentrate on particular skill areas to compensate for losses in other areas
  28. expertise
    the aquisition of skill or knowledge in a particular area
  29. sensory memory
    is an initial, momentary storage of information that lasts only an instant
  30. short-term memory
    holds information for 15 to 25 seconds
  31. long-term memory
    information that is rehersed and is stored on a relatively permanent basis.
  32. schemas
    organized bodies of information stored in memory
  33. mnemonics
    formal strategies for organizing material in ways that make it more likely to be remembered
  34. normative-crisis models
    the approach to personality development that is based on fairly universal stages tied to a sequence of age-related crises
  35. life events model
    the approach to personality development that is based on the timing of particular events in an adult's life rather than on age per se
  36. generativity-vs-stagnation stage
    according to Erikson, the stage during middle adulthood in which people consider their contributions to family and society
  37. season's of life theory
    Daniel Levinson- series of stages beginning with their entry into early adulthood at around age 20 and continuing into middle adulthood
  38. midlife transition
    is a time of questioning
  39. midlife crisis
    a stage of uncertainty and indecision brought about by the realization that life finite
  40. developmental diversity
    in some cultures middle age is not even considered a seperate period of life
  41. "Big Five"
    Neuroticism, Extroversion, Openness, Agreeableness, Conscieentiousness
  42. neuroticism
    the degree to which a person is moody, anxious, and self-critical
  43. extroversion
    how outgoing or shy a person is
  44. openness
    a person's level of curiosity and interest in new experiences
  45. agreeableness
    how easygoing and helpful a person tends to be
  46. conscientiousness
    a person's tendencies to be organized and responsible
  47. subjective well-being
    general happiness
  48. marriage gradient
    societal norms push men to marry women who are younger, smaller, and lower in status then themselves
  49. empty nest syndrom
    instances where parents feel unhappiness, worry, loneliness, and depression resulting from their children's departure from home
  50. boomerang children
    young adults who return, after leaving home for some period, to live in the homes of their middle-aged parents
  51. sandwhich generation
    couples who in middle adulthood must fullfill the needs of both their children and their aging parents
  52. tension-building stage
    in which a batterer becomes upset and shows dissatisfaction initially through verbal abuse
  53. acute battering incident
    when the physical abuse actually occurs
  54. loving contrition stage
    at this point the husband feel remorse and apologizes for his actions
  55. cycle of violence hypothesis
    the theory that abuse and neglect of children leads them to be predisposed to abusiveness as adults
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PSY 230
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