Chem test

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Author:
XQWCat
ID:
120222
Filename:
Chem test
Updated:
2011-12-14 14:29:25
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Chemistry
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Description:
acids, bases and organic chemistry
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  1. Arrhenius' Theory
    • Acids contain a hydrogen and produce H+ in water.
    • Bases contain a hydroxide group and produce OH- in water
  2. Bransted-Lawrey Theory
    • acid = proton donor
    • base = proton acceptor
    • water can act as an acid or a base
  3. conjugate acid-base pair
    • differs by 1 proton
    • ex. HCl --> Cl-
    • ex. HNO3 --> NO3
  4. amphoteric
    behaves as both acid and base (water)
  5. ionization of water
    • H2O <--> H+ + OH-
    • 2H2O <--> H3O+ + OH-
  6. Keq
    • [products]
    • [reactants]
  7. ionic product of water
    • Keq =
    • [H3O+][OH-]
    • [H2O]2
  8. Neutral solutions
    1.0 x 10-7
  9. acid solution
    • H3O+ > 1.0 x 10-7
    • ex. 10-6
  10. base solution
    • H3O+ < 1.0 x 10-7
    • ex. 10-8
  11. pH
    • scale to measure acid, base or neutral
    • -log{H3O+}
  12. buffer
    a solution that control pH with addition of small quantities of acid or base
  13. Alkane formula
    CnH2n+2
  14. isomer
    same formula with different structures
  15. alkene formula
    • CnH2n
    • min n=2
    • double bond
  16. Alkyne formula
    • CnH2n-2
    • min n=2
    • triple bond
  17. cis
    bigger groups on same side
  18. trans
    bigger groups on opposite sides
  19. ortho (o)
    benzene branch 1,2
  20. meta (m)
    benzene branch 1,3
  21. para (p)
    benzene branch 1,4
  22. alkylhalides formula and name
    • R-x
    • ex. Ch3Br = methyl bromide = IUPAC bromo methane
    • ex. CH3CH2Cl = ethyl chloride = IUPAC chloroethane
  23. alcohols formula and name
    • (-OH); R-OH, name -ol
    • ex. CH3OH = methyl alcohol = IUPAC methanol
    • ex. CH3CH2OH = ethyl alcohol = IUPAC ethanol
  24. phenol
    any aromatic compound with an OH (benzene ring with OH branch)
  25. Ethers formula and name
    • (-O-) R-O-R'
    • ex. CH3-O-CH3 = dimethyl ether
    • ex. CH3CH2OCH3 = ethyl methyl ether
  26. Aldehyde formula and name
    • (-CH=O) R-CHO, -al
    • carbon is included in functional group
    • HCHO= formaldehyde = IUPAC methanal
    • CH3CHO=methyl aldehyde, acetaldehyde=IUPAC ethanal
  27. ketone formula and name
    • R-CO-R', -one
    • CH3COCH3=acetone=dimethyl ketone=IUPAC propanone
    • CH3CH2COCH3=ethyl methyl ketone=IUPAC butanone
  28. Carbonylic acid formula and name
    • (-COOH) R-COOH, -ioc acid
    • HCOOH = formic acid = IUPAC methanoic acid
    • CH3COOH = acetic acid = IUPAC ethanoic acid
  29. Esters formula and name
    • salts of acids (when acids lose H+)
    • (-COO-) R-COO-R', -oate
    • CH3COOCH3=dimethyl ester=IUPAC propanoate
    • CH3COOCH2CH3=ethyl methyl ester=IUPAC butanoate
  30. amines formula and name
    • -NH2 or -NH-
    • CH3NH2 methyl amine
    • CH3CH2NH2 ethyl amine
  31. Radioactivity and where it occurs
    • spontaneous eruption of unstable nuclei
    • atomic numbers greater than 82 (Pb) are naturally radioactive
  32. alpha rays
    • +, so angle towards -
    • +2 charge, 4.0 amu mass, just like a He nucleus
  33. beta rays
    • -, so angle towards +
    • -1 charge, o mass, just like an electron
    • when a neutron breaks it becomes a proton and an electron. The electron is the beta ray.
  34. gamma radiation
    no charge, no mass. Usually occur with some other radiation.
  35. alpha decay
    causes daughter element to move 2 spaces to the L on the periodic table (-4/2). This radioactive series continues until the atomic number is stable (below 82).
  36. beta decay
    daughter element moves 1 space to the right on the periodic table.
  37. Half life
    • time it takes for a radioactive element to become half of its original amount.
    • 1/2n where n= number of half lives gone by.
  38. C 14's halflife
    5730 years
  39. Artificial radioactivity
    creating instability in the nucleus
  40. Uranium enrichment
    centrifuging uranium to get the U235 isotopes
  41. nuclear fission
    • breaking of heavy nucleus by projecting fast-moving nucleus into smaller nucleii. Energy released starts a chain reaction.
    • 23592U + 10 n ---> 14256Ba + 9136Kr + 310 n + energy
  42. nuclear waste
    broken nucleii
  43. Heavy water
    D2O
  44. versions of H
    11H, 21H (deuterium-D), 31H (tritium-T)
  45. Nuclear Fusion
    • fusing two nucleii.
    • 31H + 21H ---> 42He + 10 n + energy
    • 21H + 10 n ---> 31H + energy
    • 11H + 10 n ---> 21H + energy

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