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- Acids contain a hydrogen and produce H+ in water.
- Bases contain a hydroxide group and produce OH- in water
- acid = proton donor
- base = proton acceptor
- water can act as an acid or a base
conjugate acid-base pair
- differs by 1 proton
- ex. HCl --> Cl-
- ex. HNO3 --> NO3
behaves as both acid and base (water)
ionization of water
- H2O <--> H+ + OH-
- 2H2O <--> H3O+ + OH-
1.0 x 10-7
- H3O+ > 1.0 x 10-7
- ex. 10-6
- H3O+ < 1.0 x 10-7
- ex. 10-8
- scale to measure acid, base or neutral
a solution that control pH with addition of small quantities of acid or base
same formula with different structures
- min n=2
- triple bond
bigger groups on same side
bigger groups on opposite sides
benzene branch 1,2
benzene branch 1,3
benzene branch 1,4
alkylhalides formula and name
- ex. Ch3Br = methyl bromide = IUPAC bromo methane
- ex. CH3CH2Cl = ethyl chloride = IUPAC chloroethane
alcohols formula and name
- (-OH); R-OH, name -ol
- ex. CH3OH = methyl alcohol = IUPAC methanol
- ex. CH3CH2OH = ethyl alcohol = IUPAC ethanol
any aromatic compound with an OH (benzene ring with OH branch)
Ethers formula and name
- (-O-) R-O-R'
- ex. CH3-O-CH3 = dimethyl ether
- ex. CH3CH2OCH3 = ethyl methyl ether
Aldehyde formula and name
- (-CH=O) R-CHO, -al
- carbon is included in functional group
- HCHO= formaldehyde = IUPAC methanal
- CH3CHO=methyl aldehyde, acetaldehyde=IUPAC ethanal
ketone formula and name
- R-CO-R', -one
- CH3COCH3=acetone=dimethyl ketone=IUPAC propanone
- CH3CH2COCH3=ethyl methyl ketone=IUPAC butanone
Carbonylic acid formula and name
- (-COOH) R-COOH, -ioc acid
- HCOOH = formic acid = IUPAC methanoic acid
- CH3COOH = acetic acid = IUPAC ethanoic acid
Esters formula and name
- salts of acids (when acids lose H+)
- (-COO-) R-COO-R', -oate
- CH3COOCH3=dimethyl ester=IUPAC propanoate
- CH3COOCH2CH3=ethyl methyl ester=IUPAC butanoate
amines formula and name
- -NH2 or -NH-
- CH3NH2 methyl amine
- CH3CH2NH2 ethyl amine
Radioactivity and where it occurs
- spontaneous eruption of unstable nuclei
- atomic numbers greater than 82 (Pb) are naturally radioactive
- +, so angle towards -
- +2 charge, 4.0 amu mass, just like a He nucleus
- -, so angle towards +
- -1 charge, o mass, just like an electron
- when a neutron breaks it becomes a proton and an electron. The electron is the beta ray.
no charge, no mass. Usually occur with some other radiation.
causes daughter element to move 2 spaces to the L on the periodic table (-4/2). This radioactive series continues until the atomic number is stable (below 82).
daughter element moves 1 space to the right on the periodic table.
- time it takes for a radioactive element to become half of its original amount.
- 1/2n where n= number of half lives gone by.
C 14's halflife
creating instability in the nucleus
centrifuging uranium to get the U235 isotopes
- breaking of heavy nucleus by projecting fast-moving nucleus into smaller nucleii. Energy released starts a chain reaction.
- 23592U + 10 n ---> 14256Ba + 9136Kr + 310 n + energy
versions of H
11H, 21H (deuterium-D), 31H (tritium-T)
- fusing two nucleii.
- 31H + 21H ---> 42He + 10 n + energy
- 21H + 10 n ---> 31H + energy
- 11H + 10 n ---> 21H + energy