AnP Chapter 13

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Author:
copperkid2
ID:
120230
Filename:
AnP Chapter 13
Updated:
2011-12-03 10:21:04
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Heart Disease
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Description:
The Heart and Heart Disease
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  1. Heart location size and position?
    • Triangular shape
    • Loacated within mediastinum
    • Size of a closed fist
    • Apex lies on the diaphragm (5th intercostal space)
  2. Atria?
    • 2 upper chambers
    • AKA receiving chambers
    • blood enters through veins
    • Atrial chambers separated by interatrial septum
    • Left and right
  3. Ventricles?
    • 2 lower chambers
    • Discharging chambers
    • Left and right
    • Ventricular chambers separated by interventricular septum
  4. Endocardium
    Thin; very smooth tissue that lines every chamber of heart
  5. Endocarditis
    • Inflammation/infection of the endocardium
    • Rough surface may cause a blood clot (thrombus)
    • Bacterial infection - staphylococcus aureun
  6. Myocardium
    cardiac muscle tissue
  7. Pericardium
    • Fibrous sac
    • Outer lining of the heart
    • 2 layers; visceral/epicardium (inner layer) and parietal (outer layer)
  8. Pericarditis
    • inflammation of pericardium
    • caused by trauma, viral or bacterial infection, etc..
    • causes severe chest pain
  9. Pericardial Effusion
    • Pericardial fluid, pus or blood accumulates between pericardial layers
    • Pumping ability of the heart impaired
  10. Systole
    • Contraction of the heart
    • atrial systole then ventricular systole
  11. Cardiac Tamponade
    • Secondary effect of pericardial effusion
    • fluid between pericardial layers compresses heart
  12. Name the 4 valves
    • Tricuspid valve -separates right atrium and right ventricle
    • Bicuspid/mitral valve - separates left atrium and left ventricle
    • Pulmonary semilunar valve - separates right ventricle from pulmonary artery
    • Aortic semilunar valve - separates left ventricle from aorta
  13. Atrioventricular valves
    • Separates atrial chambers from ventricular chambers
    • Bicuspid/mitral - left
    • tricuspid - right
  14. Semilunar valves
    • Separates arteries from ventricles
    • Pulmonary (right)
    • Aortic (left)
  15. Incompotent valves
    • Leak
    • allow back-flow
    • causes hypertrophy (enlargens) of chamber muscle
  16. Stenosed valves
    • too narrow
    • reduce blood flow
  17. Rheumatic heart disease
    • Strep infecetion
    • occurs most often in children
    • may result in rheumatic fever
  18. Rheumatic fever
    • inflammaion of the cardiac valves and other body tissue
    • secondary illnes of rheumatic heart disease
    • severe infection may deform cardiac tissue
  19. Mitral Valve Prolapse (MVP)
    • Edges of valve extend into left atrium when left ventricle contracts
    • Incompetent valve
    • Usuall causes: genes or rheumatic fever
  20. Heart mumurs
    • caused by valve disorders
    • swishing sounds might be heard
  21. Does the heart act as 2 separate pumps?
    • atria and ventricles contract as separate units
    • the right side pumps blood to the lungs
    • the left side pumps blood to the body
  22. Blood flow through the heart...
    • Superior and inferior vena cava
    • Right atrium
    • Tricuspid valve
    • Right ventricle
    • Pulmonary semilunar valve
    • Pulmonary artery
    • Lungs
    • Pulmonary veins
    • Left atrium
    • Mitral valve
    • Left ventricle
    • Aortic semilunar valve
    • Aorta and the rest of the body
  23. Pulmonary circulation
    • Movement of blood from the right ventricle to the lungs
    • Pulmonary artery transports blood to lungs
  24. Systemic circulation
    • Movement of blood from left ventricle to the body
    • Aorta transports blood to the body
  25. Coronary circulation
    • Blood flow throughout the heart
    • Started by the coronoray arteries
  26. The term/s used when a blood clot occludes or plugs up part of a coronary artery
    • Coronary thrombosis
    • Coronary embolism
  27. Myocardial infarction
    • aka "heart attack"
    • tissue death resulting from complete or partial block of blood flow
  28. Atherosclerosis
    • "hardening of the arteries"
    • Plaque builds on the inside wall of blood vessels
  29. Angina pectoris
    Chest pain caused by lack of oxygen to the myocardium (cardiac muscle tissue)
  30. Stroke volume
    • volume of blood ejected from the ventricles during each beat
    • 60 - 80 mL
    • varies with age, sex, exercise
  31. Cardiac cycle
    • a complete heartbeat
    • systole (contraction) and diastole (relaxation)
    • 0.8 seconds
  32. Cardiac output
    • Amount of blood on ventricle can pump each minute
    • Usually 5 L / minute
    • Stroke volume x heart rate = cardiac output
  33. Conduction system of the heart
    • Autonomic nervous system controls rhythm
    • Contractions coordinated by built in conduction system of intercalated disks
  34. Intercalated disks
    • coordinates cardiac muscle contraction
    • Electrically links all muscle fibers in each region of the heart
    • i.e. atrial walls will contract at the same time
  35. Nerves of the heart
    • Sinoatrial node aka "pace maker"
    • Atrioventricular node
    • AV bundle aka "bundle of His"
    • Purkinje fibers
  36. ECG waves
    • P wave: associated with depolarization (contraction) of the atria
    • QRS complex: depolarization of the ventricles
    • T wave: repolarization of the ventricles
  37. Types of cardiac dysrhythmia
    • Heart block: conduction of impulses are blocked
    • Bradycardia < 60 beats / min
    • Tachycardia > 100 beats / min
    • Sinus dysrhytmia
    • Premature contractions
    • Fibrillation
  38. Bradycardia
    • < 60 beats/min
    • could be damaged SA node
    • can be a sideeffect of beta blockers
  39. Sinus dysrhythmia
    • variation of heart rate when breathing
    • common in children
    • heart rate increases with inspiration
    • heart rate decrease with expiration
  40. Fibrillation
    Spontaneous contraction of muscle fibers
  41. Atrial fibrillation
    • Most common type
    • ineffective ejection of blood into the ventricles
    • Caused by mitral stenosis, rheumatic heart disease, infarction of the atrial myocardium
  42. Ventricular fibrillation
    • ventricle "quivers" and stops pumping blood
    • stops circulation
    • requires defibrillation (unsynchronized electric shocks)
  43. Congestive heart failure (CHF)
    • Left sided heart failure
    • System circulation is impaired
    • body retains fluid (edema)
  44. Heart failures
    • Right sided
    • Left sided (CHF)
    • Cor polmonale
    • Pulmonary edema
    • Systemic edema
  45. Cardiomyopathy
    • Disease of the myocardial tissue
    • pumping effectiveness affected

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