H&S, Ch. 12

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  1. A theoretical & practical field that concerns primarily the human dimension in psychology & calls for renewed efforts to study the phenomena that distinguish human beings--love, happiness, & self-growth.

    Focuses on long-term values instead of tangible & immediate rewards.

    Focuses on issues such as "being & becoming" somebody rather than "having & accumulating something."
    Humanistic Psychology
  2. What was the impact of World War II & the Cold War on psychology?

    a) Marshall Plan
    b) Servicemen's Readjustment Act
    c) NIMH (1946)
    d) National Science Foundation (1950)
    e) Collapse of colonial system in the 1960's
    f) All of the above
    f) All of the above
  3. Who were the key people in the development of Humanistic Psychology?

    a) Kierkegaard
    b) Rollo May
    c) Heidegger
    d) Carl Rogers
    e) a, b, & c
    f) All of the above
    e) a, b, & c (Kierkegaard, Rollo May, & Heidegger)
  4. The therapeutic method based on the assumption that we, as human beings, make our own choices & should assume full responsibility for the outcomes of our behavior & our own feelings.
    Existential therapy
  5. An electic & diverse field of studies embracing the idea of the exceptionality of human existence, the importance of individual free choice & independent will, and the necessity to consider each & every person as a unique entity.
    Existential psychology
  6. Founder of Humanistic Psychology.

    He called for psychologists' attention to compassion, hope, & goodwill as key features of human existence.

    Motivation is a force within an organism that initiates & maintains behavior - people are motivated by needs indicating a deficiency (the needs are not necessarily tangible & material).
    Abraham Maslow
  7. What is the highest level of needs according to Maslow's Hierarchy of needs?

    a) Belonging & love needs
    b) Safety needs
    c) Physiological needs
    d) Self-actualization needs
    e) Esteem needs
    d) Self-actualization needs
  8. The scientific study of human mental processes & their role in thinking, emotions, & behavior.

    Its main concern is how we, as individuals, process information.

    What behaviorists ignored & put aside time after time had become the subject of interest of psychologists in this domain in the 1950's.

    Emphasis on "meaning."
    Cognitive Psychology
  9. Brought computational principles to the study of cognitive processes.

    He asserted that to operate, the brain has to use information fr a variety of sources inside & outside the body. In the process, the brain has to store this information. It is limited & measurable.

    The brain uses this information to solve problems. Therefore, mental functions can be viewed as problem-solving operations, programs, or procedures.

    Each problem-solving method should be based on a particular rule or algorithm. Each algorithm can be viewed as a computable operation. Essentially, all mental operations are computable. Such computable operations should be sufficient enough to explain all mental functions that the brain performs.
    Alan Turing
  10. The study & design of intelligent machines. In the context of cognitive neuroscience, artificial intelligence is the study & creation of systems that perceive their environment & make decisions to maximize success.
    Artificial intelligence
  11. An academic field that examines the brain mechanisms supporting mental functions.
    Cognitive neuroscience
  12. The term referring to the shift within psychology from being primarily behavioral to being increasingly cognitive.
    Cognitive revolution
  13. An interdisciplinary field that involves studies in cognitive neuroscience, computer science, philosophy, & linguistics, among other fields.
    Cognitive science
  14. A multidisciplinary field or approach focusing on the fundamental assumption that physical, mental, & spiritual factors contributing to illness are interconnected & equally important in treatment.
    Holistic health movement
  15. A complex medical & psychological system of help focusing on palliative & other humane principles of care.
    Hospice care
  16. A clinical field that helps medical professionals to recognize, absorb, interpret, & be moved by the stories of illness.
    Narrative medicine
  17. A theoretical & applied field that tries to understand ideological & psychological causes of war & develops educational programs to reduce the threat of violence in international relations & domestic policies of some countries.
    Peace psychology
  18. A theory & therapy based on the premise that the human mind is capable of changing itself: the right state of mind affects behavior; the behavior then produces the changes within the mind.
    Positive psychology
  19. The highest stage of individual development governed by the search for truth, goodness, beauty, wholeness, justice, & meaningfulness.
  20. The principle or strategy that organizes behavior & mental processes.
    "Test-operate-test-exit" (T.O.T.E)
  21. The term referring to humanistic psychology in contrast to behaviorism & psychoanalysis.
    Third force in psychology
  22. An American psychologist who offered a so-called person-centered approach to an individual, the approach that had found remarkable & well-received applications in therapeutic practice worldwide.

    One of the principles of his approach to psychology was his emphasis on the self-actualizing, fully functioning individual.
    Carl Rogers
  23. An application of the person-centered approach to therapy.

    Therapists are taught to show their clients genuineness, empathy, & unconditional positive regard. On the basis of these basic elements, the therapist creates a supportive, nonjudgmental environment in which clients are encouraged to think about their own problems, discuss them, prepare a course of action, & then reach their full potential.
    Person-centered therapy
  24. An American professor who contributed to the development of cognitive psychology.

    Founded the Center for Cognitive Studies at Harvard University in 1960 with his colleagues.

    Published a book w/ 2 other authors that underlined & explained several important principles of cognitive psychology.
    George Miller
  25. A widely recognized researcher & one of the world's most prominent linguistics.

    Published an influential review that criticized behaviorism & its approach to language & introduced his own ideas.

    Emphasized that any language consists of a finite set of words & terms & a fixed number of rules according to which people put these words together.

    Suggested the existence of a universal grammar: the general grammatical principles underlying all languages.

    Argued that most of the important properties of language are innate.

    The acquisition & development of a language is a result of the unfolding of internal potential to speak & understand a language--all triggered by the external environment.
    Noam Chomsky
  26. Founded the philosophical bases for existential philosophy.

    Both questioned an established belief that human beings are largely products of their environment & circumstances.
    Soren Keirkegaard & Martin Heidegger
  27. One of the leading representatives of existential psychology.

    Accepted the basic philosophical assumption about the tragic nature of the world: our life is filled w/ uncertainty & anxiety.

    Encouraged his generation to rediscover the importance of caring for one another as a way to reduce anxiety & diminish apathy. He believed, however, that joy & freedom come to people only when they confront the difficult circumstances of their lives.
    Rollo May
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H&S, Ch. 12
history & systems psychology
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