ch 27`

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ch 27`
2010-03-25 22:05:42

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  1. A consequence of European industrialization, in which much of Africa, Asia, and Latin America became economically dependent on and subordinate to manufacturing countries by exporting their raw materials to them
    International Division of Labor
  2. The process which transformed agrarian and handicraft-centered economies into ones based on machine manufacture driven by inanimate sources of energy
  3. British inventor of the “mule,” a mechanical device for spinning cotton threads (1779)
    Samuel Crompton
  4. British inventor of a water-driven power loom for weaving cotton cloth (1785)
    Edmund Cartwright
  5. Scottish inventor of a general-purpose steam engine (1765)
    James Watt
  6. A purified form of coal which replaced charcoal as the fuel used to produce iron (from 1709)
  7. British inventor of a refined blast furnace that made the production of steel cheaper (1856)
    Henry Bessemer
  8. British inventor of the steam-powered locomotive (1815)
    George Stephenson
  9. A production process in which each worker performs a single task, rather than the entire job
    Division of Labor
  10. An owner of a factory or an investor whose money is used to establish a business
  11. The Marxist term for the emotional and intellectual disconnect experienced by wage earners as a result of their repetitive and meaningless labor
  12. English handicraft workers who tried to reverse the trend toward industrialization by destroying textile machines (1811 – 1813)
  13. American inventor of the cotton gin (1793) and the use of interchangeable parts for the production of firearms
    Eli Whitney
  14. American capitalist who improved the manufacturing of automobiles through the use of assembly line techniques (1913)
    Henry Ford
  15. A private business owned by many investors who financed the business through the purchase of stocks representing shares in the company
  16. A large-scale, vertical business organization which seeks to dominate all facets of a single industry (e.g., Standard Oil Company)
  17. A horizontal business organization in which independent companies or countries within a single industry collude to fix prices and regulate production (e.g., OPEC)
  18. The social change manifested in industrialized regions: declining birthrates (contraception) offset declining mortality rates (sanitation), resulting in population stability
    Demographic Transition
  19. The internal migration of workers from rural areas to growing cities
  20. Cities in the early modern period that often attracted large numbers of migrants, exposing them to disease, malnutrition, pollution, and violence (growth rate < 1 without new immigrants)
    Demographic Sinks
  21. Worked to alleviate social and economic problems caused by industrialization; deplored the widening gap between rich and poor; condemned exploitation of workers, especially women and children
  22. German economist and philosopher; author of Das Kapital (1867); co-founder of modern communism
    Karl Marx
  23. German industrialist and philosopher; co-author of Manifesto of the Communist Party (1848)
    Friedrich Engels
  24. According to Marxist theory, the result of socialist revolution, when private property and capitalism are destroyed and the workers of the world rule egalitarian societies
    “Dictatorship of the Proletariat”
  25. Architect of modern Germany (1871); chancellor who instituted medical insurance, unemployment compensation, and social security for German citizens
    Otto von Bismarck
  26. Workers’ organizations that seek to improve working conditions and increase wages through collective bargaining and strikes
    Trade Unions
  27. Russia v. Turkey, Britain, and France, originally over Palestine, but ultimately to prevent Russian expansion into the Black Sea basin; Russian defeat (1853 – 1856)
    Crimean War
  28. Russian emancipation of the serfs; part of Russian efforts to industrialize
  29. Thirteenth Amendment to the Constitution abolished slavery in the U.S.
  30. Union Pacific and Central Pacific lines joined in Utah (1869)
    Transcontinental Railroad
  31. Linked Moscow to Vladivostok and Port Arthur (1891 – 1904)
    Trans-Siberian Railroad
  32. Finance minister who oversaw the rapid industrialization of the Russian empire (1892 – 1903)
    Sergei Witte
  33. American naval commander who forced Tokugawa Japan to open its ports to foreign trade (1853)
    Matthew Perry
  34. End of shogunate; Japanese emperor’s power reestablished; rapid industrialization and Westernization (1868)
    Meiji Restoration
  35. Industrial and financial business conglomerates that dominated the growing Japanese economy from 1868 to 1945; (literally, “plutocrats”)
  36. Brief and decisive defeat of Chinese forces in Korea and Manchuria, opening the way to Japanese control over these areas (1894 -1895)
    Sino – Japanese War
  37. Decisive defeats of Russian army in Port Arthur and the Russian Baltic Fleet at Tsushima Strait; established Japanese hegemony in East Asia (1904 – 1905)
    Russo – Japanese War