# Logic tests 1&2

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1. Define what logic is:
Logic is the study of the techniques and methods used for distinguishing good from bad arguments
2. Define what logic is NOT:
• The science of thought
• Science of reasoning
• The art of persuasion "rhetoric"
3. If a valid argument has a false conclusion, it must have a false premise. T/F
True
4. If an argument is unsound, it must have a false premise. T/F
False
5. If a valid argument has a true conclusion, it must be sound. T/F
False
6. If a deductive argument is invalid, it must have a false premise, a false conclusion, or both. T/F
True
7. The sentences, "Are you going to skip class today?" and "Today, are you going to skip class?" do not assert the same proposition. T/F
True
8. What is the fallacy of denying the antecedent? Be sure to indicate its form, provide an example, and offer a refutation by counterexample
• Formal fallacy in a hypothetical syllogism in which the categorical premisedenies the antecedent, rather than the consequent, of the conditional premise.
• If A, then B
• Not A
• Not B
• If Combes were a rockstar, then he'd be famous
• Combes is not a rockstar
• Therefore Combes is not famous
• *Refutation by counter example:
• If Obama were a rockstar, then he'd be famous
• Obama is not a rockstar
• Obama is not famour
9. "Several passengers on the airplane complained about getting earaches; hence there is likely a problem with the cabin pressure" - Premises? Conclusion? Deductive/inductive?
• Premise 1: Several passengers on the plane complained about getting earaches.
• Conclusion: There is likely a problem with the cabin pressure.
• Inductive- Causalinference; the passengers are most likely getting earaches because of the cabin pressure
10. "TV commentators are always attacking big business for making obscene profits, but the companies that they work for have higher profits than almost any other industry. The views of such individuals should thus be dismissed"
Describe the fallacy...
ad hominem circumstantial, while this may be true, the arguer is disregarding it by saying their views should be dismissed because of who is saying it. The person is being attacked, not the proposition.
11. "The standards for teacher certification are increasing, but the scores students record on standardized tests are falling. To improve our children's education we should loosen the standards for teacher certification."
What is the fallacy?
Post Hoc Proctor; This says that our childrens scores on tests are falling due to the fact that the standard for techer cert. is increasing.
12. Universal categorical propositions distribute their predicate terms. T/F
False
13. The quality of a categorical proposition determines whether the subject term is distributed or undistributed. T/F
False
14. According to traditional, Aristotelian logic (non-boolean), the contrapositive of an A prop. is the contrary of the superaltern of some O prop. T/F
True
15. According to traditional logic, if an I prop. is given as true, the corresponding E prop. will be false and the corresponding A prop. will be undetermined.
True
16. According to Boolean Logic, if "All S is non-P" is true, "No S is P" will be true, and "Some S are not non-P" will be false. T/F
True
17. If a valid standard form categorical syllogism has a particular conclusion, itmust have a particular premise. T/F
True
18. "Marty is so much fun at a party! He's a real ham. But if he is a ham, then he is high in cholesterol. So, Marty is high in cholesterol"
Which fallacy of ambiguity is this?
Fallacy of equivocation, the word ham is vague
19. "Since it is impossible for an animal or plant to be indefinitely big or small, neither can its parts be such, or the whole will be the same
What fallacy of ambiguity is this?
Fallacy of Division, stating that because an animal/plant cant be big or small, neither can its parts.
20. "Since a bus uses more gas than an automobile, all busses use more gas than all automobiles."
What fallacy of ambiguity is this?
Fallacy of composition, statement that just because one bus uses more gas than an automobile, then they all do.
21. Name the rule(s) broken by syllogisms with the OAA-3 mood and figure.
• Some M are P
• All M are S
• All S are P

Drawing an affirmative conclusion
22. "it is certain that president obama is never mistaken about foregn or domestic policies. After all, recent opinion polls give him the highest approval ratings of any commander and chief in office during the last century. And anyone who suggests otherwise runs the risk of being tried for treason"
Fallacies?
• Appeal to force