micro chap 18

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micro chap 18
2009-11-20 00:54:59

infectious diseases affecting the skin and eyes
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  1. -also known as rubeola
    -sore throat, dry cough, headache, conjunctivitis, lymphadenitis, and fever
    -Koplik's spots appear then turn into red maculopapular exanthem
    -erupts on the head then progresses to the trunk and extremities until most of the body is covered
    -complications can result
    *secondary bacterial infections
    *subacute sclerosing pancephalitis (SSPE)
  2. -also known as German measles
    -relatively minor rash disease with few complications
    -two forms:
    *postnatal infection
    *congenital infection
    -teratogenic virus
    -transmission of virus to a fetus in utero
    -mother can transmit the virus even if she is asymptomatic
    -fetal injury varies depending on the time of infections
  3. -Erythema infectiosum
    -"slapped cheek" appearance
    -spreads on the body but is most prominent on arms, legs, and trunk
    -maculopapular, blotches run together
    -low-grade fever and malaise
    Fifth disease
  4. -common in young children and babies
    -most cases proceed without the rash stage; others result in maculopapular rash
    -high fever
    -fourth day, fever disappears, and rash can appear
  5. -most often the result of a respiratory infection with Streptococcus pyogenes
    -causes strep throat
    scarlet fever
  6. -caused by viruses
    -most caused by one of more than 80 human papilomaviruses (HPVs)
    wartlike eruptions
  7. -also known as papillomas
    -affect children more than adults
    -benign squamous epithelial growths
    -varioud types
  8. -smooth waxy nodules on the face, trunk, and limbs
    -may be indented in the middle
    -may contain milky fluid
    -common in children
    -most often causes nodules on the face, arms, legs, and trunk in children; mostly in genital areas in adults
    molluscum contagiosum
  9. -Leishmaniasis
    -Cutaneous anthrax
    large pustular skin lesions
  10. -zoonosis transmitted by female sand flies
    -several different forms, depending on the species that is involved
  11. -most common and least dangerous version of infection with Bacillus anthracis
    -caused by endospores entering the skin through small cuts or abrasions
    -papule that becomes increasingly necrotic then ruptures to form a black eschar
    cutaneous anthrax
  12. -dermatophytes
    -confined to the nonliving epidermal tissues and their derivatives
    -different names all beginning with the word tinea
    ringworm (cutaneous mycoses)
  13. -ringworm of the scalp
    -common in children
    -small scaly patches to a severe inflammatory reaction to destruction of the hair follicle and temporary or permanent hair loss
    tinea capitis
  14. -ringworm of the beard
    -aka barber's itch
    -chin and beard of adult males
    tinea barbae
  15. -ringworm of the body
    -prevalent infection of humans
    -can appear nearly anywhere on the body's glabrous skin
    -usually appears as one or more scaly reddish rings on the trunk, hip, arm, neck, or face
    tinea corporis
  16. -ringworm of the groin
    -also known as jock itch
    -thrives under conditions of moisture and humidity caused by sweating
    tinea cruris
  17. -ringworm of the foot
    -also known as athlete's foot and jungle rot
    -connected to wearing shoes-keep feet in a closed, warm, moist environment
    tinea pedis
  18. -ringworm of the hand
    -almost always associated with concurrent infection of the foot
    -usually occur on the fingers and palms of one hand
    -tinea manuum
  19. -ringworm of the nail
    -superficial white patches in the nail bed, or thickening, distortion, and darkening of the nail
    -artificial fingernails can provide a portal of entry into the nail bed
    tinea unguium
  20. -involve the outer epidermal surface
    -ordinarily innocuous infections with cosmetic rather than inflammatory effects
    -tinea versicolor caused by Malassezia furfur
    superficial mycoses
  21. -chronic Chlamydia trachomatis infection of the epithelial cells of the eye
    -major causes of blindness in certain parts of the world
    -first signs of infection-mild conjunctival discharge and slight inflammation of the conjunctiva
    -followed by marked infiltration of lymphocytes and macrophages
    -as these cells build up, they impart a pebbled appearance to the inner aspect of the upper eyelid
    -eventually, pannus occurs
  22. -more serious infection than conjunctivitis
    -invasion of deeper eye tissues occurs, can lead to complete corneal destruction
    -any microorganism can cause this condition
    -one of the more common causes: herpes simplex virus
    -preliminary symptoms: gritty feeling in the eye, conjunctivitis, sharp pain, and sensitivity to light
  23. -chronic parasitic (helminthic) infection
    -Onchocerca volvulus transmitted by black flies
    -the worms eventually invade the entire eye, producing inflammation and permanent damage to the retina and optic nerve
    river blindness